نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مهندسی آب

2 هیدرولیک، دانشیار گروه آب دانشگاه ارومیه

3 هیات علمی/ دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

بحران آب از یک طرف و شوری شدن اراضی از طرف دیگر، بخش کشاورزی را با چالش­های جدی روبرو ساخته است. هدف این تحقیق، بررسی اثرهای سطوح کود نیتروژن بر عملکرد و بهره­وری آب کلزای پاییزه (Brassica Napus) و رقم اکاپی در شرایط تنش خشکی و شوری در حوزه دریاچه ارومیه می­باشد. این پژوهش در قالب آزمایش فاکتوریل و بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل  تصادفی، در سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه ارومیه اجرا شد. آبیاری به عنوان فاکتور اول در سه سطح، آبیاری تا حد ظرفیت مزرعه‌ای، 75% و 50% ظرفیت مزرعه‌ای، شوری در سه سطح، بدون تنش شوری، آبیاری با آب 7 و 14 میلی موس بر سانتی­متر و نیتروژن در سه سطح به ترتیب با مقادیر 60، 120 و 180 کیلوگرم نیتروژن خالص در هکتار، اعمال گردید. بیشترین عملکرد دانه در تیمار آبیاری تا ظرفیت مزرعه، نیتروژن 180 کیلوگرم در هکتار و بدون تنش شوری و کمترین عملکرد دانه در تیمار آبیاری تا 50% ظرفیت زراعی، 60 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن خالص و 14 میلی موس بر سانتی­متر شوری به ترتیب با مقادیر 45/4 و 59/0 تن در هکتار بدست آمد. بیشترین مقدار این شاخص در تیمار آبیاری تا ظرفیت مزرعه، نیتروژن 180 کیلوگرم در هکتار و بدون تنش شوری، و کمترین آن در تیمار آبیاری تا 50% ظرفیت زراعی، 60 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن خالص و 14 میلی موس بر سانتی­متر شوری به ترتیب برابر با 5/8 و 2/1 تن در هکتار حاصل شد. بر اساس نتایج، استفاده از کود نیتروژن می­تواند اثرهای سوء تنش شوری را تا حد زیادی جبران نماید. در بین صفات اندازه­گیری شده در این تحقیق، ارتفاع بوته، کمترین تغییر معنی­دار را در برابر انواع تنش­های آبی و شوری از خود نشان داد. افزایش غلظت نمک در آب، سبب، کاهش بهره­وری آب گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Nitrogen and Salinity on Irrigation Water Yield and Productivity at Different Soil Moisture Levels

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehrdad Chakherloo 1
  • Sina Besharat 2
  • Vahid Reza Verdinejad 3

1 Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia

2 هیدرولیک، دانشیار گروه آب دانشگاه ارومیه

3 Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia

چکیده [English]

The water crisis coupling with the soil salinization have made the agricultural sector facing serious challenges. This study aims to investigate the effects of nitrogen fertilizer levels on yield and water use efficiency of autumn Canola (Brassica Napus) under drought and salinity stress conditions in Lake Urmia basin. This research has been conducted as factorial based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications at the research farm of Department of Water Engineering, Urmia University. Irrigation as first factor have been applied at three levels including 50%, 75% and 100% of field capacity, salinity stress as second factor have been applied at three levels including irrigation without salinity, with 7 and 14 dS/m saline water, and nitrogen as third factor have been applied in 60, 120 and 180 kg/hectare. The highest grain yield (4.45 tons/hectare) have been achieved in field capacity irrigation, nitrogen 180 kg/hectare without salinity stress treatments and the lowest rain yield (0.59 tons/hectare) have been achieved in up to 50% of field capacity irrigation, 60 kg/hectare pure nitrogen and 14 dS/m salinity treatments. The highest value of this index (8.5 tons/hectare) have been achieved in field capacity irrigation, nitrogen 180 kg/hectare without salinity stress treatments and the lowest rain yield (1.2 tons/hectare) have been achieved in up to 50% of field capacity irrigation, 60 kg/hectare pure nitrogen and 14 dS/m salinity treatments According to the results, the use of nitrogen fertilizer lead to greatly amend the effects of salinity stress. Among the measured parameters, plant height is the most resistant trait with the least variation in stress conditions. Increasing salinity leads to reduce the water use efficiency.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • fertilizer
  • Salt
  • Water deficit
  • Water efficiency
  • Water use efficiency
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