نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 ستادیار گروه خاکشناسی دانشگاه ولی‌عصر (عج) رفسنجان

2 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد گروه خاکشناسی دانشگاه ولی‌عصر (عج) رفسنجان

3 دانشیار گروه خاکشناسی دانشگاه ولی‌عصر (عج) رفسنجان

چکیده

پالایش خاک‌های آلوده به عناصر سنگین به وسیله­ گیاهان یکی از روش­های مقرون‌ به‌صرفه و دوست‌دار محیط‌زیست است. در مواردی برای افزایش کارایی گیاهان در استخراج فلز سنگین از ریزموجودهای مفید خاکزی استفاده می­شود. این پژوهش با هدف بررسی تأثیر سودوموناس‌ها ریزوسفری بر افزایش پاکسازی مس از خاک با فرآیند گیاه‌پالایی توسط گیاهان مختلف انجام شد. مرحله اول کشت در یک طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 11 تیمار گیاهی (ذرت، سورگوم، گندم، کلزا، زنیان، قیچ، مریم‌گلی، تاج‌خروس، رازیانه، یونجه و کدو) و در سه تکرار انجام گرفت. بیش‌ترین غلظت و جذب مس به‌ترتیب در قیچ با 173 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم و کدوی پوست کاغذی با 222 میکروگرم بر گلدان بود. پنج گیاه انتخابی کدو، ذرت، گندم، کلزا و قیچ براساس بیش‌ترین غلظت و جذب مس برای کشت دوم انتخاب شد. کشت دوم گلخانه­ای به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با دو فاکتور شامل نوع گیاه در پنج سطح (کدو، ذرت، کلزا، گندم و قیچ) و باکتری شامل سه سطح (عدم تلقیح باکتری، تلقیح سویه Pseudomonas putida PA2 و تلقیح سویهPseudomonas fluorescence PA3 )در سه تکرار اجرا شد. در این آزمایش وزن خشک اندام ‌هوایی و ریشه؛ غلظت و جذب عنصر مس در اندام‌ هوایی و ریشه و هم‌چنین تغییرات شیمیایی مس در ریزوسفر بررسی شد. کاربرد هر دو سویه باکتری باعث افزایش معنی‌دار وزن خشک، غلظت و جذب مس در اندام هوایی و ریشه در مقایسه با شاهد شد. از بین گیاهان نیز گیاه کدو به‌دلیل زیست‌توده‌ی بالا، بیش‌ترین جذب مس در اندام هوایی (2/90 میکروگرم بر گلدان) (مؤثرمؤثرترین در گیاه‌استخراجی) و گیاه ذرت به‌دلیل وزن خشک ریشه‌ی بالا بیش‌ترین جذب مس در ریشه (428 میکروگرم بر گلدان) (مؤثر در گیاه‌تثبیتی) را دارا بود. بررسی شکل‌های شیمیایی مس در خاک ریزوسفری نشان داد که تلقیح باکتری‌های محرّک رشد PA2 و PA3 به‌ترتیب باعث افزایش 9/41 و 37 درصدی شکل­های محلول و قابل تبادل مس و کاهش 05/7 و 41/6 درصدی شکل باقی‌مانده شدند. نتایج کلی نشان داد که باکتری‌های محرّک رشد گیاه می‌توانند نقش مؤثری در افزایش کارایی گیاه‌پالایی به‌ویژه در فرآیند گیاه‌استخراجی داشته باشند و گیاه کدو با بیش‌ترین مقدار جذب مس کاراترین گیاه در فرآیند گیاه‌پالایی مس در این پژوهش بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Pseudomonas on Copper Phytoremediation by some Indigenous and Crop Plants

نویسندگان [English]

  • payman abbaszadeh-dahaji 1
  • Zahra Karimi 2
  • Mohsen Hamidpour 3
  • Abdalreza Akhgar 3

1 Assistant Professor, Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University

2 M.Sc. Graduate student, Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University, Iran

چکیده [English]

Remediation of heavy metals contaminated soils by plants is one of the most cost-effective and environmentally friendly methods. In some cases, useful soil microorganisms are used to increase the plants efficiency in heavy metal remediation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rhizospheric pseudomonads on increasing the phytoremediation efficiency in copper (Cu)-contaminated soils. The first experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design in three replications with 11 plant treatments (Maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), wheat (Triticum aestivum), canola (Brassica napus), Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), Amaranth (Amaranthus), Salvia (Salvia officinalis), Zygophyllum (Zygophyllum), Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi), alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and pumkin (Cucurbita)). The highest Cu concentration and uptake  were related to Zygophyllum with 173 mg kg-1 and pumkin with 222 µg pot-1, respectively. Five plants including pumpkin, maize, wheat, canola, and Zygophyllum were selected based on the highest Cu concentration and uptake of  for the second experiment. The second experiment was designed in a completely randomized design with two factors including plant types at five levels (pumkin, maize, canola, wheat and Zygophyllum) and three levels of bacteria (non-bacterial inoculation, Pseudomonas putida PA2 strain, Pseudomonas fluorescence PA3) in three replications. In this section, the shoots and roots dry weight; Cu concentration and uptake in shoots and roots, as well as the chemical changes of the Cu in the rhizosphere were investigated. The use of both strains of the bacteria significantly increased the dry weight, concentration and uptake of Cu in shoots and roots compared to the control. Among the plants, pumpkin had the highest uptake of Cu in shoots due to high biomass (90.2 µg pot-1) (the most effective in phytoextraction) and maize due to its high root weight had the highest Cu uptake (428 µg pot-1) (effective in high Phytostabilization). Investigation of the chemical forms of Cu in the rhizosphere showed that inoculation by PA2 and PA3 growth-promoting bacteria increased 41.9 and 37% of soluble and exchangeable forms of Cu respectively, and decreased the residual form of copper up to 7.05 and 6.41%. The overall results showed that the growth-promoting bacteria play an effective role in increasing the phytoremediation, especially the phytoextraction and pumpkin with the highest Cu uptake was the most efficient plant in the Cu phytoremediation in this study.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Heavy metals
  • Maize
  • Pumpkin
  • phytoremediation
  • sequential extraction
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