نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی،دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

2 استاد، فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران.

3 استاد،گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی استاک بریج، دانشگاه ماساچوست ، ماساچوست، آمریکا

4 بیولوژی و بیوتکنولوژی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

5 دانشجوی دکتری اکولوژی گیاهان زراعی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

چکیده

استفاده مداوم از سیستم­های تک­کشتی و خاک­ورزی بیش از حد، خاک­های کشاورزی را در بسیاری از مناطق ایران تخریب کرده است. تأثیر کوتاه­مدت گیاهان پوششی روی ویژگی­های منتخب خاک در یک مطالعه مزرعه­ای در سال 1397 مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. آزمایش به صورت بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. چهار تیمار آزمایشی شامل، تک­کشتی یولاف، تک­کشتی خلر، کشت مخلوط آن­ها و کنترل بدون گیاه پوششی بود. بالاترین و کمترین زیست­توده اندام هوایی 13/198 و 06/124 گرم در مترمربع بود و به­ترتیب از کشت مخلوط و تک­کشتی خلر به­دست آمد. زیست­توده بالا منجر به سرکوب علف­های هرز در مقایسه با کنترل شد. وزن خشک علف­های هرز به­ترتیب به­میزان 04/33 و 12/41 درصد در تک­کشتی یولاف و کشت مخلوط کاهش یافت. بالاترین میزان کربن آلی خاک (21/1 درصد) و بیشترین جمعیت میکروبی (105×5/6 تعداد در گرم) از تیمار آزمایشی کشت مخلوط به­دست آمد. کشت مخلوط، تک­کشتی یولاف و تک­کشتی خلر به­ترتیب 53/51، 72/50 و 11/49 درصد فشردگی خاک را کاهش دادند. با این حال، جرم مخصوص ظاهری خاک، تخلخل خاک و میزان نفوذ آب تحت تأثیر گیاهان پوششی قرار نگرفت. نتایج به دست آمده در این مطالعه نشان داد که تغییرات کوتاه مدت در برخی از ویژگی­های خاک مرتبط با زیست­توده و گونه­های گیاهان پوششی است. به طور کلی، ترکیبی از گیاهان پوششی بر تغییر ویژگی­های خاک تأثیر بیشتری داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Short-Term Effect of Oat (Avena sativa L.) and Chickling Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) Cover Crops on Improving some Soil Properties

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Ahmadnia 1
  • Ali Ebadi 2
  • Masoud Hashemi 3
  • Akbar Ghavidel 4
  • Soghra ghahremani 5

1 Ph.D student plant physiology. Department of Agronomy and plant breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and natural resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabili, Iran

2 Professor, Plant physiology, Department of Agronomy and plant breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and natural resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabili, Iran

3 Professor, Stockbridge School of Agriculture, Soil Sciences. University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts, USA

4 Department of Soil Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabili, Iran

5 Ph.D student plant ecology, Department of Agronomy and plant breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and natural resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabili, Iran

چکیده [English]

Continuous use of monoculture systems and excessive tillage has degraded agricultural soils in many regions of Iran. The short-term impact of cover crops on selected soil properties was investigated in a field study in 2018. The experiment was laid out as complete randomized block with three replications. The four experimental treatments included, monoculture of oat and monoculture chickling pea, their mixture, and no cover crop as control. Highest and lowest aerial biomass were 198.1 gm-2 and 124.1 g m-2 and obtained from mixed cover crop and sole chickling pea, respectively. The higher biomass resulted in significant weed suppression, compared with control. Weed dry weight reduced by 33.04% and 41.12% in oat monoculture and mixed cover crops, respectively. The highest soil organic carbon (1.21%) and highest microbial population (6.5 × 105 per gram of soil) were obtained from mixed cover crop experimental plots. Cover crop mixture, and monoculture of oat and monoculture chickling pea reduced soil compaction by 51.5%, 50.7%, and 49.1%, respectively. However, soil bulk density, soil porosity, and rate of water infiltration were not affected by cover crop treatments. Results obtained in this study indicated that short-term changes in some soil properties are related to both, biomass and cover crop species. Overall, a mixed of cover crops was more influential on changing soil properties.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biomass
  • carbon sequestration
  • Microbial population
  • Soil compaction
  • Soil health
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