نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه مهندسی علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان و عضو هیئت علمی مؤسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

2 استاد، گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

3 استادیار، موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

چکیده

آﮔﺎﻫﻲ از ﺗﻮزﻳﻊ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻲ کیفیت خاک، از ﻣﻬﻢ­ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎت در ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻳﻲ، ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ­رﻳﺰی، ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ و ﺑﻬﺮه­ﺑﺮداری از ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ خاک است. در این مطالعه، نمونه­های خاک سطحی (30-0 سانتی­متر) از 50 کشتزار (m 1650 × m 1650) در منطقه ساوجبلاغ استان البرز برداشت گردید و ویژگی­های فیزیکی، شیمیایی و زیستی خاک اندازه­گیری شد. کل متغیرهای مؤثر بر کیفیت خاک استخراج، و کمترین متغیرها با استفاده از روش تجزیه مؤلفه‌های اصلی (PCA) انتخاب شدند. معیارهای کیفیت خاک شامل کیفیت تجمعی وزنی (SQIw) و تجمعی ساده (SQIa) و شاخص کیفیت نمورو (NQI) با استفاده از کل ویژگی­ها (TDS) و کمترین ویژگی­ها (MDS) تعیین شدند. تغییرات مکانی شاخص­های کیفیت با استفاده از روش زمین­آمار تحلیل و توزیع مکانی آنها با استفاده از روش کریجینگ معمولی تعیین شد. نتایج نشان داد که بهترین مدل برازش یافته برای شاخص­ NQI با استفاده از کمترین ویژگی­­ها مدل گوسی (93/0=R2)، و برای بقیه شاخص­ها با استفاده از کمترین ویژگی­­ها و کل ویژگی­­ها، مدل نمایی (99/0-79/0=R2) بود. همچنین، دامنه تغییرات مکانی برای شاخص­های SQIa،،SQIWوNQI به ترتیب 2/6-6 ، 65/3-7/2 و 2/7-5/4 کیلومتر بود. شاخص NQIبا استفاده از کل ویژگی­ها، دقت بالاتری بر اساس آماره­های R2 برابر با 85/0 و ریشه میانگین مربعات خطای نرمال شده (01/0=NRMSE) برای تهیه نقشه کیفیت خاک داشت. قسمت وسیعی از منطقه کیفیت بالا داشت (کلاس II) و مناطقی محدود کیفیت متوسط (کلاس III) و بسیار بالا (کلاس I) داشتند. شاخص­های کیفیت در منطقه وابستگی مکانی متوسطی داشتند (70/0-31/0). با توجه به پایین بودن ماده آلی و پایداری ساختمان خاک منطقه، با انتخاب روش مدیریتی مناسب مانند افزودن ماده آلی و سیستم خاک­ورزی حفاظتی، می­توان کیفیت خاک را بالا برد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Spatial Distribution of Soil Quality in Savojbolagh Fields in Alborz Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • rasoul mirkhani 1
  • Ali Reza Vaezi 2
  • hamed rezaei 3

1 Ph.D. student of Department of Soil Science Zanjan University, Zanjan, Iran and Members of Scientific Board of soil and Water Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Alborz, Iran

2 Full Professor, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Univrsity of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Soil and Water Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Alborz, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Knowledge on the spatial distribution of soil quality is one of the most ‎important issues in recognition, planning, management and optimal ‎exploitation of soil resources. In this study, physical, chemical and biological properties of topsoil ‎‎(0-30 cm) were measured in 50 fields (1650 m × 1650 m) in Savojbolagh region, Alborz ‎province. All of the factors influencing soil quality were selected using ‎the principal component analysis (PCA). The Weighted Additive Soil Quality Index (SQIw), the Additive Soil Quality Index (SQIa) and the Nemero Soil Quality Index (NQI) were quantified using either the total data set (TDS) or the minimum data set (MDS). Spatial variability of these soil quality indices were analyzed using geostatistical technique. In addition, spatial distribution of them were determined using the Ordinary Kriging method‎. The results showed that for the NQI index, the best fitted model was the Gaussian (R2= 0.93) when MDS was used, whereas, the exponential (R2= 0.79-0.99) model was strongly fitted to the other indices obtained from MDS and TDS. Furthermore, the effective range of spatial variability for SQIa, SQIw and NQI indices was 6-6.2, 2.7-3.65 and 4.5-7.2 kilometers, respectively. The NQI obtained from the TDS appeared to have the higher accuracy in the area (R2= 0.85, normalized root mean squares error (NRMSE) = 0.01). A large part of the area has high quality (class II) as well as to some extent areas have medium quality (class III) and very high (class I). Soil quality indices in the region were in moderate spatial dependence (0.31-0.7). So, the soil quality in the region is affected by both natural and external factors. Therefore, regarding the low organic matter as well as the weak structural stability of soil in the study area, one may expect that by implementing appropriate management methods such as adding organic matter, the soil quality will be increased.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • principal component analysis
  • Spatial variability
  • Soil quality index
  • Spatial dependence
  • Minimum data set
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