نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

2 استادیار دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

3 گروه زراعت، دانشکده تولید گیاهی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

4 مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان گلستان

5 گروه مدیریت مناطق بیابانی ، دانشکده مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

چکیده

استان گلستان از لحاظ سطح زیر کشت و میزان تولید سویا در رتبه اول کشور قرار دارد. بیش‌ین سطح زیرکشت سویا در این استان به شهرستان گرگان اختصاص دارد. اخیراً در این شهرستان نظام کشاورزی حفاظتی در حال گسترش می‌باشد. با توجه به اهمیت فرسایش در هدر رفت خاک و تأثیر آن در حاصل­خیزی، برآورد میزان فرسایش در اراضی کشاورزی دارای اهمیت است. هدف از این مطالعه برآورد و مقایسه میزان فرسایش خاک تحت دو نظام کشت مرسوم و حفاظتی سویا و تهیه نقشه فرسایش در اراضی کشاورزی شهرستان گرگان می­باشد. مطالعه حاضر در دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان در سال 96-1395 انجام شد. بدین منظور 38 مزرعه با نظام کشت مرسوم و 10 مزرعه نظام کشت حفاظتی با استفاده از معادله جهانی هدررفت خاک ارزیابی شدند. مزارع در چهار جهت اصلی شهرستان و بر اساس پنج مرکز خدمات کشاورزی انتخاب شدند. برای تهیه نقشه متغیر­های دخیل در معادله جهانی هدررفت خاک از روش­های زمین آماری در محیط ArcMap نسخه 3/10 استفاده شد. با توجه به نتایج، میزان فرسایش در اراضی تحت نظام حفاظتی با میانگین 024/55 کیلوگرم بر هکتار در سال و تحت نظام مرسوم با میانگین 31/131 کیلوگرم بر هکتار در سال زراعی برآورد شد. نتایج نشان داد تفاوت معنی‌داری در سطح 99 درصد بین این دو نظام کشت بر اساس آزمون تی وجود دارد. هم‌چنین با بررسی نقشه میزان فرسایش خاک، مشخص شد که مزارع واقع در نیمه شرقی شهرستان، دارای بیش‌ترین میزان فرسایش می‌باشند. دلیل این امر بالا بودن میزان فرسایندگی باران، فرسایش‌پذیری خاک و نیز کمبود پوشش سطح خاک به واسطه حذف بقایای گیاهی می‌باشد. بطورکلی با اجرای کشاورزی حفاظتی در اثر حفظ بقایا در سطح خاک و کاهش خاک­ورزی، فرسایش خاک کاهش یافته و با حفاظت از خاک به‌عنوان یک خدمت بوم­سازگانی، می‌توان اثرات ناشی از فرسایش را به‌طور معنی‌دار در مزارع کاهش داد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Estimation and Comparison of Soil Erosion in Conservation and Conventional Agricultural Systems (Case study: Soybean Agricultural Lands in Gorgan County)

نویسندگان [English]

  • S. MOUSHANI 1
  • A. Soltani 3
  • Mohammad Esmaeil Asadi 4
  • M. Hosseinalizadeh 5

1 Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources

3 Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources

4 Golestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center

5 Department of Watershed Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources

چکیده [English]

Golestan province has the first rank in Iran in terms of soybean production and area. Most of these areas are located in Gorgan County. Recently, conservation agricultural system is developing in this county. Considering the importance of erosion in soil loss and fertility decline, estimating the amount of soil erosion in agricultural lands is important. The current study carried out in Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, during 2016-2017. Soybean field were selected from four main directions based on five agricultural service centers. In order to 38 conventional fields and 10 conservation fields were evaluated based on Universal Soil Lose Equation (USLE). The maps of USLE parameters were produced by interpolation methods in ArcMap 10.3. According to the results, the average amounts of erosion were estimated as of 55.024 kg ha-1 per year in the conservation fields and 131.31 kg ha-1 per year in the conventional fields. The results showed that there was a significant difference between these two agricultural systems in Gorgan based on T test in the 99% probability level. Also, soil erosion map showed that the eastern part of the county had the most erosion amounts. The reasons of these results were the high rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility and the lack of soil surface coverage from plant residue. Generally, soil erosion was reduced with the implementation of conservation agriculture system, maintaining the plant residue in soil surface and reducing soil tillage. Thus, the effects of erosion can be significantly reduced in fields using conservation of soil as an ecosystem service.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Conservation Agriculture
  • Erosion
  • Geographic Information System
  • Soybean
  • Universal soil loss equation
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