آلودگی کادمیومی و بررسی تاثیر آن بر کیفیت بیولوژیکی خاک و رشد گیاه بنگدانه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه ارومیه

2 عضو هیات علمی گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه ارومیه

3 کارشناس ارشد آزمایشگاه، گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

در سال­های اخیر شاخص کیفیت خاک بیشتر از شاخص کیفیت آب و هوا مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. حفظ سلامت وکیفیت خاک جهت اطمینان از سلامت بیوسفر و محیط زیست ضروری می­باشد. کادمیوم به عنوان یکی از فلزات سنگین اثرات سمی و بالقوه بر فعالیت و ترکیب موجودات زنده خاک دارد. پارامترهای میکروبی می­‌توانند جهت ارزیابی کیفیت خاکهای آلوده مورد استفاده قرار ‌گیرند. هدف از این مطالعه بررسی کارایی پالایش سبز و نقش قارچ ریشه­های آربوسکولار و باکتری­های محرک رشد بر کاهش اثرات کادمیوم با استفاده از گیاه بنگ‌دانه بود. این آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل شامل دو فاکتور (1) کادمیوم در چهار سطح (0، 10، 30 و 100 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم خاک)، (2) تیمار تلقیح میکروبی در سه سطح (شاهد، 1 PGPRو 2AMF) در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار و در شرایط گلخانه­ای در دانشگاه ارومیه اجرا گردید. عملکرد ماده خشک و غلظت کادمیوم شاخساره و برخی پارامترهای بیولوژیک خاک مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. بر اساس نتایج حاصل از این تحقیق، افزایش آلودگی کادمیومی خاک موجب افزایش معنی­دار (05/0P ≤) غلظت کادمیوم شاخساره و ضریب متابولیکی (qCO2) گردید. همچنین، کادمیوم موجب کاهش معنی­دار (05/0P≤) عملکرد شاخساره، کربن بیوماس میکروبی (MBC)، تنفس میکروبی، تنفس بر­انگیخته با سوبسترا (SIR)، جمعیت PGPR و همزیستی میکوریزی شد. تلقیح تیمار­های میکروبی به خاک سبب شد تا اثرات بازدارندگی کادمیوم بر شاخص‌های اندازه­گیری شده کاهش یابد. به طور کلی نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که درخاک‌های آلوده به کادمیوم با استفاده از میکروارگانیسم­های محرک رشد، امکان تنزل تاثیر نامطلوب کادمیوم بر رشد گیاه و شاخص‌های میکروبی کیفیت خاک وجود دارد



1- Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria


2- Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Soil Cd Contamination and Evaluation of It’s Effects on Soil Biological Quality and Plant Growth

نویسندگان [English]

  • Solmaz Kazemalilou 1
  • MirHassan Rasouli-Sadaghiani 2
  • Habib Khodaverdiloo 2
  • Mohsen Barin 3
1 M.Sc Student, Department of Soil Science, Urmia University
2 Department of Soil Science, Urmia University
3 Senior Experts of Laboratory, Department of Soil Science, Urmia University
چکیده [English]

Recently the concept of soil quality has been widely emphasized than that of water or air quality. The maintenance of soil quality is critical for ensuring the sustainability of the environment and biosphere. Cadmium (Cd) as one of heavy metals (HM) which has toxic effects on activity and compound of soil biota. Phytoremediation which refers to the use of plants and helper microorganisms for remediation of contaminated soils is an effective and low cost method for reclamation of heavy metals polluted soils. Soil biological parameters can be used for evaluating the quality of contaminated soils. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are known to enhance plant growth and survive in HM-contaminated soils through different mechanisms. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of phytoremediation and the effect of AMF and PGPR in reducing adverse effects of Cd to Hyoscyamus plant. This experiment were performed at greenhouse condition with three replicates in a factorial plot, including two factors; cadmium levels (0, 10, 30 and 100 mg kg-1 soil), and microbial inoculation treatments (control, PGPR and AMF inoculation). The results showed increasing soil Cd caused increased shoot Cd concentration and microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2). Furthermore, Cd significantly decreased plant shoot yield, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial respiration, substrate-induced respiration (SIR), mycorrhizal symbiosis percent as well as bacterial population. Microbial inoculation effectively decreased inhibitory effects of Cd on biological parameters. It is conclude that in soils contaminated with Cd, using plant growth-promoting microorganisms can decline adverse effects of Cd on growth and microbial indices of soil quality.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • soil quality
  • phytoremediation
  • Cadmium
  • AMF
  • PGPR
References

Abedi-koupai JM, Vossoughi-Shavari S, Yaghmaei M and Ezzatian R. 2007. Effects of microbial population on phytoremediation of petroleum contaminated soils using tall fescue. Int. J. Agric & Biol. 242-246.

AgganganNS, Dell B and Malajczuk N. 1989. Effects of chromium and nickel on growth of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius and formation of ectomycorrhizas on Eucalyptus urophylla Blake. S.T. Geoderma, 84: 15-27.

Alef K and Nannipieri P. 1995. Methods in applied soil microbiology and biochemistry. Academic Press, London.

Anderson JPE. 1982. Soil respiration. PP. 831-871. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2: Chemical and microbiological propertiese, Page AL and Miller RH. (Eds.), American Society of Agronomy. Madison. 831-871.

Anderson TH and Domsch KH. 1990. Application of eco-physiological quotient (qCO2 and Dq) on microbial biomassesfrom soils of different cropping histories, Soil Biol. Biochem. 22: 251–255.

Baath E. 1989. Effects of heavy metals in soil on microbial processes and populations. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 47: 335-379.

Babich H and Stotzky G. 1978. Effects of cadmium on the biota: influence of environmental factors. Adv. Appl. Microbial. 23: 55-117.

Blaudez D, Jacob C, Turnau K, Colpaert JV, Ahonen-Jonnarth U, Finlay R, Botton B and Chalot M. 2000. Differential reponses of ectomycorrhizal fungi to heavy metals in vitro. Mycol. Res. 104: 1366-1371.

Bunemann EK, Schwenke GD and Van Zwieten L. 2006. Impact of agricultural inputs on soil organisms. a review. Soil Res. 44: 379-406.

Cariny T. 1995. The reuse of contaminated land. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. Publisher. 219p.

Chen Y, Zhu G. and Smith FA. 2006. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on uranium and arsenic accumulation by Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.) from a uranium mining-impacted soil. Chemosphere, 62: 1464–1473.

Das P, Samantaray S and Rout GR. 1997. Studies on cadmium toxicity in plants: a review. Environ. Pollut. 98: 29-36.

Del Val C, Barea JM and Azcon-Aguilar C. 1999. Assessing the tolerance to heavy metals of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolates from sewage sludge-contaminated soils. Appl. Soil Ecol. 11: 261–269.

Doran JW and Safely M. 1997. Defining and assessing soil health and sustainable productivity. In: Pankhurst C, Doube BM, Gupta VVSR. (Eds.), Biological indicators of soil health. CAB International, Wallingford. 1–28p.

Fortes Neto P. 2000. Degradacao de biossolido incorporado ao solo avaliadaatraves de medidas microbiologicas. PhD Thesis, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Piracicaba, Brasil, 113 pp.

Giovannetti M. and Mosse B. 1980. An evaluation of techniques for measuring vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in roots. New Phytol. 84: 489-500.

Gohre V and PaszkowskiU. 2006.Contribution of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis to heavy metal Phytoremediation.Planta, 223: 1115–1122.

Grace C. and Stribley D.P. 1991. A safer procedure for routine staining of VAM fungi. Mycological Res. 95: 1160-1162.

Gregorich EG, Carter MR, Angers DA, Monreal CM and Ellert BH. 1994. Towards a minimum data set to assess soil organic matter quality in agricultural soils. Can. J. Soil Sci. 74: 367–385.

Guo C, Fang F and Liu J. 2011. Isolation of ACC deaminase-contaning plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria from petroleum contaminated soil. Adv. Mat. Res. 356: 244-247.

Hernandez LE and Cooke DT. 1997. Modificationof root plasma membrane lipid composition of cadmium treated Pisum sativum. J. Ex. Bot. 48: 1375-1381.

Jackson A.P. and Alloway B.J. 1992. The transfer of cadmium from agricultural soil to the human food chain. In: ADRIANOD.C. (Ed) Biogeochemistry of trace metals. Boca Raton: Lewis Publishrs. 109-158.

Joner EJ. and Leyval C. 1997. Uptake of 109Cd by roots and hyphae of a Glomus mosseae/Trifolium subterraneum mycorrhiza from soil amended with high and low concentration of cadmium. New Phytol. 135: 353-360.

Jenkinson DS and Ladd JN. 1981. Microbial biomass in soil measurement and turnover, In: Paul E.A., Ladd, J.N. (Eds). Soil Biochemistry, Marcel Dekker, Inc., NY. 415-471p.

Lee E. and Banks MK. 1993. Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil using vegetation: A microbial study, J. Environ. Sci. Health, 28 (10): 2187.

Hartley J, Cairney JWG and Meharg A. 1999. Cross-colonization of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutes in the presence of inhibitory levels of Cd and Zn. New Phytol. 142: 141-149.

Khan A.G. 2001. Relationships between chromium biomagnification ratio, accumulation factor, and mycorrhizae in plants growing on tannery effluent-polluted soil. Environ. Int. 26:417-423.

Khan AG. 2005. Role of soil microbes in the rhizospheres of plants growing on trace element contaminated soils in phytoremediation. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 18(4): 355-364.

Ma Y, Prasad MNV, Rajkumar M and Freitas H. 2011. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and endophytes accelerate phytoremediation of metalliferous soils. Biotechnol Adv. 29: 248–258.

Maier RM, Papper LL and Gebra CP. 2000. Environmental microbiology. Academic Press, Chapter 17: 403-423.

Miransari M. 2011. Hyperaccumulators, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and stress of heavy metals. Biotechnol. Adv. (in press)

Sandaa RA, Torsvik V and Enger A. 1999. Analysis of bacterial communities in heavy metal-contaminated soils at different levels of resolution. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 30: 237-51.

Schloter M, Munch JC and Tittarelli F. 2006. Managing soil quality. In: Bloem, J Hopkins, D.W., Benedetti, A. (Eds.), Microbiological methods for assessing soil quality. CAB International, Wallingford. 50–62p.

Sheng XF, Xia JJ, Jiang CY, He LY and Qian M. 2008. Characterization of heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape (Brassica napus) roots and their potential in promoting the growth and lead accumulation of rape. Environ. Pollut. 156: 1164-1170.

Siqueira JO, Colozzi-Filho A and Oliverira E. 1989. Occurencia de micorrizas vesiculo arbusculares em agro ecossistemas naturais do estado de minas gerais. Pasquisa Agropecuaria brasileira. 24: 1499-1506.

Sylvia DM and Williams SE. 1992. Vesicular arbuscularmycorrhizae and environmental stresses. ASA No. 54, Madison, USA. pp: 101–124.

Vance ED, Brookesand PC and Jenkinson DS. 1987. An extraction method for measuring soil microbial biomass C. Soil Biol. Biochem. 19: 703–707.

Vassilev A and YordanovI. 1997. Reductive analysis of factors limiting growth of cadmium treated plants review. Plant Physiol. 23: 114-133.

Vivas A, Azcon R, Biro B, Barea JM and Ruiz-Lozano JM. 2003. Influence of bacterial strains isolated from lead-polluted oil and their interactions with arbuscular mycorrhiza on the growth of Trifolium pratense L. under lead toxicity. Microbiol. 49: 577–88.

Wang HH, Shan XQ, Wen B, Owens G, Fang J and Zhang SZ. 2007. Effect of indole-3-acetic acid on lead accumulation in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings and the relevant antioxidant response. Exp. Bot. 61: 246-253.

Wenzel WW, Lombi E and AdrianoDC. 2004. Root and rhizosphere processes in metal hyperaccumulation and phytoremediation technology. In: Prasad MNV (ed) Heavy metals in plants: from biomolecules to ecosystems. Berlin. 313–344p.

Zhang HH, Tang M and Zheng C. 2010. Effect of inoculation with AM fungi on lead uptake, translocation and stress alleviation of Zea mays L. seedlings planting in soil with increasing lead concentrations. Europ. J. Soil Biol. 46: 306-311.