اثر توأمان فشردگی و رطوبت خاک بر جذب آهن و منگنز توسط دانهال‌های پسته (.Pistachio vera L)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز

2 دانشیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز

3 استادیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

در آزمایشی گلخانه‌ای‌ جذب آهن و منگنز توسط دانهال‌های پسته (.Pistachio vera L) در رطوبت‌ و تراکم‌های مختلف بررسی گردید. این آزمایش در یک خاک آهکی با بافت لوم شنی در چهار‌ سطح‌ تراکمی (چگالی 35/1، 5/1، 65/1 و 8/1 گرم بر سانتی­متر مکعب)، شش سطح رطوبت از رطوبت اشباع تا نقطه پژمردگی دایم و در سه تکرار انجام شد. بعد از خروج ریشه‌ها از استوانه (90 روز) گیاهان برداشت، غلظت و مقدار آهن و منگنز اندازه‌گیری شد. این آزمایش آشیانه‌ای در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی اجرا گردید. افزایش تراکم خاک از 5/1 به 8/1 گرم بر سانتی‌متر مکعب سبب افزایش تقریبی 30 درصدی غلظت آهن ریشه و منگنز بخش هوایی و ریشه شد. افزایش سطوح تراکم خاک از 35/1 به 8/1 گرم بر سانتی‌متر مکعب مقدار آهن و منگنز بخش هوایی را به­ترتیب 74 و 64 درصد و مقدار آهن و منگنز ریشه را به­ترتیب 45 و 36 درصد کاهش داد. در تمام سطوح تراکمی کمبود آب تاًثیر منفی بر غلظت آهن بخش هوایی گذاشت، ولی افزایش غلظت منگنز بخش هوایی و ریشه در سطوح تراکمی 35/1 و 5/1 گرم بر سانتی‌متر مکعب همراه با تنش رطوبتی مشاهده شد. زیادی آب خاک سبب افزایش مقدار آهن و منگنز بخش هوایی و ریشه در سطح تراکمی 8/1 گرم بر سانتی‌متر مکعب گردید (p<0.05). همچنین افزایش مقدار آهن و منگنز ریشه در سطح تراکمی 65/1 گرم بر سانتی‌متر مکعب مشاهده شد (p<0.05).

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Simultaneous Effects of Soil Compaction and Moisture on Fe and Mn Uptake by Pistachio (Pistachio vera L.) Seedlings

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ghazaleh Azizi 1
  • Adel Reyhanitabar 2
  • Davood Zarehagi 3
  • Nosratollah Najafi 2
1 Graduate student, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz
2 Associates Professor, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz
3 Assistant professor Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz
چکیده [English]

A greenhouse experiment was carried out to study the uptake of Fe and Mn in pistachio seedlings (Pistachio vera L.) at different densities and moisture levels. This experiment was applied in a sandy loam soil with four levels of bulk density (1.35, 1.5, 1.65 and 1.8 g cm-3) and six moisture levels from saturation to the permanent wilting point in triplicates. After outbreak the roots (90 days) from cylinders, seedlings were harvested and analyzed for their Fe and Mn. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design based nesting. Increasing soil density from 1.5 to 1.8 g/cm3 resulted in almost 30 percent increase in roots Fe concentration and root and shoot Mn concentration. An increase in soil density from 1.35 to 1.8 g cm-3 decreased 74 and 64 percent the shoot iron and manganese contents and decreased 45 and 36 percent root iron and manganese, respectively. Water deficiency at all bulk density levels had a negative impact on shoot Fe concentration , but an increase in Mn concentration was observed in shoot and root at bulk density levels of of 1.35 and 1.5 (g cm-3) with water stress. High soil water content increased Fe and Mn contents in shoot and root at bulk density level of 1.8 (g cm-3) (p<0.05). It also increased (p<0.05) the Fe and Mn content in root at density level of 1.65 (g cm-3).

References

 

Alam SM. 1999. Nutrient uptake by plants under stress conditions. Nuclear Institute of Agriculture Tando Jam, Sindhu, Pakistan, 12: 285-313.

Aliehyayi M, and Behbahanizadeh A. 1993. Description of the methods of chemical analysis of soil (printing). Soil and Water Research Institute Publication, No. 893.

Alipoor H and Hoseinifard SJ. 2003. Diagnosis and nutrient deficiency in pistachios. Pistachio Research Institute of Iran, Rafsanjan, 53p (in Persian).

Alizade A, Majidi A and Noormohammadi G. 2008. Effects of drought and soil nitrogen on nutrient uptake of maize varieties, 704. Journal of Agriculture Science, 4: 51-59 (in Persian).

Behnia M. 1997. Cold cereal. Publishing and Printing Tehran University, 2nd edition, 129p (in Persian).

Burneli JN. 1988. The biochemistry of manganese in plants. In: Graham RD, Hannam J and UrenNC. (eds). Manganese in Soils and Plants, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, pp: 125-137.

Canbolat M, Bilen S, Cakmakcı R, Sahin F and Aydın A. 2006. Effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria and soil compaction on barley seedling growth, nutrient uptake, soil properties and rhizosphere microflora. Biology and Fertility of Soil, 42: 350-357.

Delaney AJ, Hu CAA, Kishor KPB and Verma DPS. 1993. Cloning ornithine-aminotransferase CDNA from Vigna anconitifolia by trans-complementation in Escherichia coil and regulation of proline biosynthesis. Journal of Biology and Chemistry, 268: 18673-18678.

Good A, and Zaplachiniski S. 1994. The effects of drought on free amino acid accumulation and protein synthesis in Brassica napus. Physiologia Plantarum, 90: 9-14.

Gunes A, Cicek N, Inal A, Eraslan F, Guneri E and Guzelordu T. 2006. Genotypic response of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars to drought stress implemented at pre- and post-anthesis stages and its relations with nutrient uptake and efficiency. Plant and Soil Environment, 52: 368-376.

Hakansson I and Voorhees WB. 1998. Soil compaction.In:Lal R, Blum WH, Valentin C and Stewart BA. (eds). Methods for Assessment of Soil Degradation. CRC Press Boca Raton, FL. pp: 167-179.

Heydarinejad A and Abusaeedi D. 2005. Effective identification and leaf explants of pistachio trees  from the viewpoint of plant diseases, nutrition and irrigation. Final Research Report, Department of Irrigation and Nutrition Research Institute of pistachio, 121p. (in Persian).

Johan LH, James DB, Samuel LT and Werner LN. 1999. Soil fertility and fertilizers. An introduction to nutrient management, 696p.

Jones R. 1972. Comparative studies of plant growth and distribution in relation to waterlogging. VI. The effect of manganese on the growth of dune and slack plants.Journal of Ecology, 60: 141-145.

Khoshgoftarmanesh AH. 2004. Determine the most limiting factors in land salty pistachio production of Qom. ResearchCenter of Qom, Publication Management and Planning Organization of Qom, 2: 58-72 (in Persian).

Lipiec J and Stepniewski W. 1995. Effects of soil compaction and tillage systems on uptake and losses of nutrients. Soil and Tillage Research, 35: 37-52.

Mahmudi Sh, Najafi N and Reyhanitabar A. 2014. Effect of soil moisture and sewage-sludge compost on some soil chemical properties and alfalfa forage macronutrients concentrations in greenhouse conditions. Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Culture, 22: 37-54 (in Persian).

Malakouti MJ and Homaei M. 2003. Soil fertility of arid and semi-arid areas (problems and solutions), Tarbiat Modares University Press, 494p. (in Persian).

Marschener H. 1995. Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. 2nd edition, Academic Press London, 889p.

Mehmet P and Altıngül OP. 2011. Effect of soil compaction on root growth and nutrient uptake of forage crops. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 9: 275-278.

Mohammadi mohammadabadi A, Alipur H and Ghaffari Moaffgh F. 2012. Effect of different levels of nitrogen and irrigation quantity and quality on pistachio production, Kerman region. Research in Plant Production, No. 1: 17-42 (in Persian).

Najafi N, Mardomi S and Ostan Sh. 2011. Effects of flooding, sewage sludge and manure on heavy metal concentrations in roots and shoots of sunflower in a loamy sand soil. Journal of Sciences and Technologies of Agriculture and Natural Resources (Soil and Water Sciences), 58: 139-156 (in Persian).

Najafi N, Sarhangzade A and Ostan Sh. 2012. Sodium chloride soil salinity and waterlogging on the concentration of micronutrients in maize SC-704. Journal of Soil and Water Sciences (Agricultural Science). 23: 205-225 (in Persian).

Parakas A, Nikolaou N, Ziaoziou E, Radoglou K and Noitsakis B. 2002. The role of organic solute and ion accumulation in osmotic adjustment in drought-stressed grapevines. Plant Science, 163: 361-367.

Ponnamperuma FN. 1972. The chemistry of submerged soils. Advances in Agronomy, 24: 29-96.

Rowell DL. 1994. Soil science: Method and Application. Longman Scientific and Technical, John Wiley, UK. 350p.

Sajedi N and Rejali F. 1991. Effects of drought stress on the application of mycorrhizal inoculum on the absorption of micronutrients in maize. Journal of Soil Research (Soil and Water Sciences), 2: 84-92 (in Persian).

Smethurst CF, Garnett T and Shabala S, 2005. Nutritional and chlorophyll fluorescence responses of alfalafa (Medicago sativa) to waterlogging and subsequent recovery. Plant and Soil, 270: 31-45.

Stepniewski W, Glifiski J and BallBC. 1994. Effects of soil compaction on soil aeration properties. In: Soane BD and van Ouwerkerk C (eds). Soil Compaction in Crop Production Elsevier Amsterdam, pp: 167-189.

Trought MCT and Drew MC. 1980. The development of waterlogging damage in young wheat plants in anaerobic solution culture. Journal of Experimental Botany, 31: 1573-1585.

Waling I, VarkWV, Houba VJG and Van der lee JJ. 1989. Soil and plant analysis, a series of syllabi. Part 7. Plant Analysis Procedures. WageningenAgricultureUniversity, Netherland, 179p.

Yazdi Samadi B, Rezaei AM and Valizadeh M. 1997. Statistical projects in agricultural research. TehranUniversity Press, 364p. (in Persian).

Zarehaghghi D, Neyshabouri M, Gorji M, Monirifar H and Shorafa M. 2012. Determination of non-limiting water range for seedling growth of pistachio at two levels of soil compaction. Journal of Soil and Water Sciences, 22: 59-71 (in Persian).