تاثیر پنج دهه عملیات کشاورزی مستمر بر توزیع شکل های پتاسیم در برخی باغات‌ جنوب دشت ارومیه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد گروه علوم خاک دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ارومیه

2 دانشیار گروه علوم خاک دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ارومیه

3 استادیار گروه علوم خاک دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ارومیه (مکاتبه کننده)

چکیده

عملیات کشاورزی مستمر ممکن است بعضی تغییرات را در خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی و توزیع شکل­های پتاسیم خاک ایجاد کند. برای بررسی این فرضیه، خاک­های 5 زیرگروه Calcixerepts Typic، Fluventic Haploxerepts،Typic Endoaquepts، Typic Halaqueptsو  Vertic Endoaqueptsاز خاک­های جنوب دشت ارومیه که تحت عملیات باغداری مستمر برای مدت بیش از 5 دهه قرارگرفته­اند تشریح و نمونه­برداری شدند. نمونه­های خاک پس از هوا خشک و عبور از غربال 2 میلی­متری تحت آزمایش­های مختلف فیزیکوشیمیایی قرارگرفته و توزیع شکل­های مختلف پتاسیم تعیین شدند. نتایج نشان داد که در بیشتر خاک­های مطالعه شده عملیات باغداری مستمر باعث کاهش در مقادیر شکل­های پتاسیم به تبعیت از تغییر در تیپ­های مختلف خاک، فعالیت­های زراعی و خصوصیات خاک شده است. همچنین مقایسات نشان داد که عملیات باغداری مستمر باعث کاهش معنی­دار شکل­های پتاسیم به استثنای پتاسیم غیرتبادلی شده است. در ­این ­بین پتاسیم محلول و پتاسیم غیرتبادلی به ترتیب بیشترین و کمترین کاهش را در بین شکل­های پتاسیم نشان داد. بر این اساس عملیات باغداری مستمر باعث کاهش 100 درصد پتاسیم محلول، 60 درصد پتاسیم تبادلی و 60 درصد پتاسیم قابل­استفاده در زیرگروه­های مورد مطالعه گردید. مطالعات کانی­شناسی نیز مؤید این مطلب است که عملیات باغداری مستمر سبب تغییراتی در شدت نسبی و موقعیت پیک­های ایلایت و اسمکتایت شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of five-decade continuous horticultural practice on distribution of potassium forms in some soils in South of Urmia

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Amirpour 1
  • Salar Rezapour 2
  • Behnam Dovlati 3
1 Former Graduate Student of Soil Science Department, Faculity of Agriculture, Univercity of Urmia
2 Associate Professor of Soil Science Department, Faculity of Agriculture, Univercity of Urmia
3 Asistant Professor of Soil Science Department, Faculity of Agriculture, Univercity of Urmia, (Corresponding Author)
چکیده [English]

Continuous horticultural practice may be manifesting some modifications on physico-chemical and different K forms of soil. To investigate this hypothesis, five soils subgroups (Typic Calcixerepts, Fluventic Haploxerepts, Typic Endoaquepts, Typic Halaquepts and Vertic Endoaqupts) of cultivated and adjoining uncultivated soils of south Urmia that have been under continuous horticultural practice for more than 5 decades were described and sampled. The soil samples were analyzed for different K forms and K adsorption properties after they were air-dried and ground to pass through a 2-mm sieve. The result showed that for most of the studied soils, continuous horticultural practices decreased the amount of different K forms as result of changes in soils types, agricultural practices and soil properties. Comparisons also showed that continuous horticultural practice significantly caused reduction in the all forms of K excluding the non-exchangeable K (NEK). Among the soluble K and NEK, respectively, showed the highest and the least changes. The continuous horticultural practice decreased 100 percent soluble K, 60 percent exchangeable K, 60 percent available K in the studied soil subgroups. Mineralogical studies also suggested that continuous horticultural practices caused changes in the relative intensity and position of the XRD pattern (peak) of illite and smectite.

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