تأثیر سیستم مدیریت تغذیه تلفیقی بر برخی ویژگی‌های کمی و کیفی سیب

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار پژوهش مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی آذربایجان غربی (مکاتبه کننده)

چکیده

هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی تأثیر مصرف بهینه کود بر مبنای مدیریت تغذیه تلفیقی (INM) بر برخی خصوصیات کمی و کیفی سیب (Malus domestica L. Borkh) رقم زرد در باغ‌های استان آذربایجان­غربی بود. طرح تحقیقاتی در قالب بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در پنج تکرار اجرا گردید. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل شاهد (عرف باغدار) و مصرف بهینه کود، با استفاده از منابع شیمیایی و آلی عناصر بر اساس آزمون خاک و تجزیه گیاه بودند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر تیمارها برشاخص کلروفیل SPAD معنی‌دار گردیده و مقدار آن در تیمار مصرف بهینه کود 10 درصد بیشتر از شاهد بود. نتایج بیان­گر تفاوت­های بارزی در غلظت عناصر غذایی نیتروژن، پتاسیم، کلسیم، آهن و روی برگ درختان سیب در بین تیمارهای مصرف بهینه کود و عرف باغدار بودند. شاخص­های تعادل تغذیه­ای محاسبه شده با اعداد مرجع سیستم تلفیقی تشخیص و توصیه (DRIS) در تیمارهای مدیریت تلفیقی و عرف باغدار، به­ترتیب معادل32/48 و 92/87 بودند. مصرف بهینه کود موجب بهبود تعادل تغذیه­ای، افزایش میزان پروتئین و نسبت کلسیم به منیزیم در میوه گردید. مقایسه غلظت عناصر غذائی و برخی خصوصیات کیفی میوه با استاندارهای جهانی نشان داد که در هر دو تیمار، میزان پروتئین و غلظت عناصر فسفر، منیزیم، آهن، روی و مس بیش از حدود استاندارد بود، ولی غلظت عناصر پتاسیم، کلسیم و منگنز کمتر از آن بود. همچنین، نسبت نیتروژن به کلسیم میوه در هر دو تیمار بیش از استاندارد مذکور بوده که احتمالا ناشی از ذخیره نیتروژن خاک به­دلیل مصرف زیاد کودهای نیتروژنی در باغات سیب استان آذربایجان­غربی است. به‌طورکلی، می­توان نتیجه­گیری کرد که سیستم مدیریت تلفیقی تغذیة باغات سیب می­تواند موجب ارتقای کمی و کیفی میوه و بهبود سلامت گیاه گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of integrated nutrient management in some quantitative and qualitative characteristics of apple

نویسنده [English]

  • Aziz Majidi
Corresponding author; Research Assistant Professor, Agricultural and Natural Resource Center of West Azerbaijan
چکیده [English]

The effects of conventional and integrated nutrient management (INM) systems were studied on some quantitative and qualitative characteristics of apple (Malusdomestica L. Borkh) trees of ‘Golden Delicious’. The experiment was carried out as a randomized complete block design with four replications at five locations over 2 years period on commercial apple orchards in northwestern Iran. Treatments consisted of T1 (conventional method) and T2 (INM based on soil test and plant analysis). The results indicated significant differences in SPAD chlorophyll index between the different management systems. INM treatment produced 10% higher leaf chlorophyll content than the conventional method. These findings revealed evidence of major differences in the leaf N, K, Ca, Fe and Zn nutrient contents between conventional and INM fertilization of grown apple trees. The nutrient balance indices (NBI) calculated by DRIS norms of T1 and T2 treatments were 87.92 and 48.32, respectively. INM system increased fruit protein and Ca/Mg ratio than the conventional method. The comparison of the nutrients concentration and some fruit quality parameters with international standards showed that in both treatments, fruit protein, P, Mg, Fe, Zn and Cu nutrients were higher than the standard values but the concentrations of K, Ca and Mg were lower than standard values. Furthermore, N/Ca ratio in both treatments was higher than the standard value probably due to the extensive former application of nitrogen fertilizers in apple orchards. It can be concluded that fertilization of apple based on INM system is effective in promoting fruit quality as well as trees health.

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