سینتیک رهاسازی فسفر و همبستگی پارامترهای آن با برخی ویژگی‌های خاک و رشد ذرت در چند خاک‎ آهکی استان آذربایجان شرقی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد گروه علوم خاک دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز

2 دانشیار گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز، (مکاتیه کننده)

3 دانشیار گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

در این تحقیق، سینتیک رهاسازی فسفر توسط بی­کربنات سدیم در 12 خاک آهکی از استان آذربایجان­شرقی با استفاده از نمونه خاک‎های سطحی (cm 30-0) اندازه­گیری شد. محلول بی‌کربنات سدیم نیم مولار با pH 5/8 به خاک‎ها افزوده شد و به‎مدت 25/0، 5/0، 1، 2، 4، 8 و 16 ساعت تکان داده شد. سپس عصاره­گیری و غلظت فسفر آزاد شده تعیین گردید. برای تعیین شاخص­های رشد گیاه ذرت آزمایشی به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی و در سه تکرار و به­مدت 2 ماه انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که کمترین و بیشترین مقدار فسفر استخراج شده در خاک‎های مورد مطالعه طی 16 ساعت به‎ترتیب 5/5 و 1/38 با میانگین 6/15 میلی­گرم فسفر بر کیلوگرم خاک بود. مقایسه ضرایب تبیین (R2) و خطای معیار (SE) هفت معادله مختلف نشان داد که سه معادله الوویچ ساده شده، دو ثابته و پخشیدگی پارابولیک داده­های آزاد شدن فسفر از خاک‎ها را بهتر بیان کردند.  پارامتر a معادله دو پارامتری (q=atb) با وزن خشک بخش هوایی ذرت و مقدار فسفر بخش هوایی همبستگی مثبت و معنی­دار نشان داد (r به‎ترتیب **75/0 و *61/0) اما پارامتر b با هیچکدام از پارامترهای گیاهی همبستگی نداشت. همچنین حاصل ضرب ab که نشان دهنده مقدار فسفر آزاد شده در لحظات اولیه است با وزن خشک بخش هوایی همبستگی مثبت نشان داد (**76/0=R). ثابت سرعت پخشیدگی (kp) معادله پخشیدگی پارابولیک با وزن خشک بخش هوایی همبستگی معنی­داری (01/0>P) داشت. در نتیجه، آزمون خاک برای فسفر قابل­دسترس (Olsen-P) که با عصاره­گیری فسفر پس از مدت زمانی کوتاه انجام می­گیرد، ممکن است منجر به کم­برآوردی فسفری گردد که نهایتا به محلول خاک و برای گیاه آزاد می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Kinetics of phosphorus release and correlation of its parameters with soil properties and corn growth in some calcareous soils of East Azerbai-jan province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Reza Maqhsoodi 1
  • Adel Reyhanitabar 2
  • Nosratollah Najafi 3
1 MSc. Graduate, Department of Soil Science, University of Tabriz.
2 Associate Prof., Department of Soil Science, University of Tabriz.
3 Associate Prof., Department of Soil Science, University of Tabriz .
چکیده [English]

In this research, kinetics of phosphorus (P) extraction by sodium bicarbonate from the ≤ 2 mm fraction of 12 calcareous soils of East Azerbaijan province was investigated using surface (0-30 cm) soil samples. Soils were equilibrated with 0.5 M, NaHCO3 solution for 0.25 to 16 h. To determine the corn plant growth parameters a factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted for a period of 2 months. According to the results, the minimum and maximum amount of extracted P during 16 hours was 5.54 and 38.15 with a mean of 15.68 mg P.kg-1, respectively. Comparisons of coefficients of determination (r2) and standard errors (SE) for seven different models indicated that the best models for describing the P release data in all soils were two-constant rate, parabolic-diffusion and simple Elovich equations, respectively. The zero, first, second- and third order equations could not describe P release properly and r2 decreased from zero to third order. Soil organic matter was the most pertinent soil characteristics that predicted the rate constants of the two constant and parabolic kinetics models. The parameter (a) of two-parameter rate equation, was positively correlated with shoot dry weight of corn and shoot P content (r=0.75** and r=0.61**, respectively).There was no significant relationship between rate parameter b and measured corn plant parameters either singly or in combination. Although, the amount of the extractable P for initial extraction time (a.b constant) was significant and positively correlated with shoot dry weight (r=0.76**). The diffusion rate (kp) of parabolic-diffusion equation showed significant relationships (p<0.01) with dry matter of corn shoot. Consequently, a soil test for available P (Olsen-P) that involved extraction for a quite short time period might underestimate the amount of P that is eventually released to soil solution and plants.

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