توزیع شکل‌های شیمیایی آهن در تعدادی از خاک‌های استان گلستان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد گروه علوم خاک دانشکده آب و خاک دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

2 دانشیار گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده آب و خاک دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

3 استادیار گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده آب و خاک دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

4 4- دانشیار گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده آب و خاک دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

چکیده

آهن یکی از عناصر کم مصرف ضروری برای گیاه است. شکل­های مختلف عناصر خاک از نظر واکنش­پذیری و زیست فراهمی به­طور چشمگیری با یکدیگر متفاوتند. هدف از این تحقیق، مطالعه توزیع شکل‌های مختلف آهن در بین اجزای مختلف خاک و روابط این اجزای فلزی با برخی ویژگی‌های خاک و پاسخ گیاهی بود. بدین منظور آزمایشی روی 10 نمونه خاک تهیه شده از مناطق مختلف استان گلستان با ویژگی­های فیزیکی و شیمیایی مختلف انجام شد. جزءبندی آهن خاک به­وسیله روش‌ عصاره‌گیری دنباله­ای تعیین گردید. همچنین برای بررسی رابطه میان شکل‌های مختلف آهن خاک با ماده خشک، غلظت و جذب آهن، آزمایشی گلدانی روی سویا رقم ویلیامز ((Glycine max cv. Williams به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی که فاکتور اول تعداد 10 نوع خاک و فاکتور دوم دو سطح کودی سکوسترین آهن (0 و 20 میلی­گرم آهن بر کیلوگرم) بود، در سه تکرار انجام گردید. نتایـج نشـان داد که در خاک­های مورد مطالعه، ترتیب مقادیر شکل­های شیمیایی آهن به صورت زیر بـود: کربناتی< تبادلی<ماده­آلی< اکسیدهای منگنز< اکسیدهای آهن بی‌شکل< اکسیدهای آهن متبلور< باقی‌مانده. آهن قابل استخراج با DTPA با اجـزای تبادلـی، متصل به اکسیـدهای منگـنز و اکسیـدهای آهـن متبلور (به ترتیب **54/0r=، **60/0r= و *41/0r=) همبستگی مثبت معنی‌داری نشان دادند. مصرف سکوسترین آهن باعث افزایش شاخص کلروفیل، غلظت و جذب آهن اندام هوایی شد. جزء متصل به ماده­آلی با وزن خشک (**41/0r=) و تعداد برگ کلروزی (*33/0-r=) به­ترتیب همبستگی مثبت و منفی معنی­داری نشان دادند. جزء متصل به اکسیدهای منگنز با جذب آهن (*35/0r=) و شاخص کلروفیل برگ­سالم (**37/0r=) و برگ پایینی (**53/0r=) همبستگی مثبت و معنی­داری نشان داد. شکل­های تبادلی (**51/0r=)، متصل به ماده‌آلی (*37/0r=)، باقی­مانده (**57/0r=) و آهن کل (*46/0r=) خاک همبستگی مثبت معنی­داری با درصد رس خاک نشان دادند. عصاره­گیری ساده با DTPA به تنهایی قادر به برآورد آهن قابل جذب گیاه نیست، بنابراین، شکل‌های مختلف آهن و میزان رس خاک نیز در این زمینه باید مدنظر قرارگیرند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Distribution of Soil Iron Chemical Forms in some Golestan Province Soils

نویسندگان [English]

  • Gholamreza Nodehsharify 1
  • Esmaeil Dordipour 2
  • Mojtaba Barani Motlagh 3
  • Mohsen Olamaee 4
4 4- دانشیار گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده آب و خاک دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان
چکیده [English]

Iron is one of the essential micronutrients for plants. The various components of soil elements differ significantly from each other in terms of reactivity and bioavailability. The purpose of this research was to study the distribution of different forms of Iron among the various soil components and the relationships between the metal components with some soil characteristics. So, an experiment was carried out on 10 samples collected from different areas of Golestan province with different chemical and physical properties. Fractionation of soil iron was determined via Singh et al (1988)’s sequential extraction procedure. For investigating the relationship among the various forms of soil iron with dry matter, concentration and uptake of iron, a factorial pot experiment on Glycine max cv. Williams in a completely randomized design (10 types of soil at first factor and two iron fertilizer levels (0 and 20 Fe mg kg-1) at second factor), with three replications was also conducted. The results showed that the amounts of iron chemical forms were ordered as follows: carbonates-bound < exchangeable < OM-bound < Mn oxides-bound < amorphous Fe oxides-bound < crystalline Fe oxides-bound < residual forms. DTPA-extractable iron showed significantly a positive correlation with exchangeable, Mn oxides-bound and crystalline Fe oxides-bound fractions (r=0.54**, r=0.60** and r=0.41*, respectively). Application of iron sequestrene caused an increase in chlorophyll index and concentration and uptake of iron. The OM-bound fraction indicated significantly positive and negative correlations with dry weight (r=0.41**) and the number of chlorotic leaves (r= -0.33*), respectively. Mn oxides-bound form was significantly and positively correlated with iron uptake (r=0.35*) and chlorophyll indices of intact and bottom leaves (r=0.37** and r=0.53**, respectively). The soil exchangeable (r=0.51**), OM-bound (r=0.37*) and residual forms (r=0.57**) and total iron (r=0.46*) showed significantly positive correlations with soil clay content. A single extraction with DTPA is not able to estimate a plant available iron; therefore, in this regard the iron different forms and clay content of soil should be also considered.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chemical forms
  • Iron
  • Soil
  • Soybean
  • Uptake
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