بررسی ویژگی‌های فیزیکی، ‌شیمیایی و کانی‌شناسی خاک‌های گچی شمال ارومیه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه علوم خاک دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ارومیه

2 استادیار گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

خاک­های گچی، بخش مهمی از منابع اراضی را در مناطق خشک و نیمه­خشک دنیا به خود اختصاص می­دهند و گچ متداول­ترین کانی سولفاتی در خاک­های نواحی خشک و نیمه­خشک می­باشد. تجمع گچ در خاک­ها بسیاری از خواص فیزیکوشیمیایی، کانی­شناسی و مهندسی خاک­ها را متأثر می­سازد و در بسیاری از زمینه­ها مشکلات جدی برای فعالیتهای انسانی ایجاد می­کند. در این پژوهش، 9 خاکرخ که اغلب خاک­های واقع در مواد مادری گچی در منطقه نوشین­شهر بودند، حفر و نمونه­برداری شدند. سپس ویژگی­های مورفولوژیکی، فیزیکی، شیمیایی و کانی­شناسی آنها طبق روش­های استاندارد تعیین و خا­ک­ها بر اساس کلید رده­بندی خاک امریکایی (2014)، رده­بندی گردیدند. براساس نتایج حاصل، مقدار گچ خاک­ها از 91/62 درصد در افق Cyy خاکرخ شماره 1 تا 91/2 درصد در افق Ap خاکرخ شماره 8 متغیر بود و هرگونه تغییر درمقدار گچ خاک­ها با تغییر سایر ویژگی­های خاک­ها همراه بود. نتایج نشان داد که خاک­های حاوی بیشترین مقدار گچ، دارای رنگ روشنتر، بافت سبکتر و کمترین مقدار رس، مواد آلی و ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی کمتر و قابلیت هدایت الکتریکی بیشتری بودند و با کاهش مقدار گچ، مقادیر پارامترهای بالا به­طور معکوس تغییر یافتند. نتایج مطالعات کانی­شناسی نشان داد که کانی­های اسمکتایت، ایلایت، کلرایت، کائولینایت، ورمی­کولایت و پالی­گورسکایت کانی­های رسی غالب در این خاک­ها بودند. منشأ ایلایت، کلرایت و کائولینایت، موروثی تشخیص داده شد، درحالی­که، منشأ ورمی­کولایت به تغییر شکل ایلایت نسبت داده شد. کانی­های اسمکتایتی در این خاک­ها از سه منشأ توارث از سنگ مادر، تغییر شکل کانی­های دیگر (ازجمله ایلایت) و نوتشکیلی حاصل آمده­اند. پالی­گورسکایت نیز دارای منشأ پدوژنیک بوده و در اثر نوتشکیلی در خاک تشکیل شده است. مقایسه کانی­شناسی رس خاک­های با مقادیر مختلف گچ، حضور بیشترین مقدار اسمکتایت را در خاک­هایی با بیشترین مقدار گچ نشان داد. کانی پالی­گورسکایت تنها در خاک­های با مقادیر بالای گچ شناسایی شد، درحالی­که در خاک­هایی که حاوی گچ کمتری بودند، کانی­های ایلایت و کلرایت غالب بودند و در این خا­ک­ها پالی­گورسکایت نیز شناسایی نشد. در نهایت، با توجه به تأثیر گچ بر خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی، فیزیکی، شیمیایی و کانی­شناسی خاک­های مورد مطالعه، لازم است برای بهره­وری بهینه این خاک­ها، مدیریت آنها مورد تجدید نظر قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of physico-chemical and mineralogical properties of gypsiferous soils in the north of Urmia

نویسندگان [English]

  • Leila Pashaei 1
  • Shahram manafi 2
چکیده [English]

Gypsiferous soils comprise an important part of soil resources in arid and semiarid areas in the world and gypsum is the most common sulphate mineral in the soils of arid and semiarid areas. Accumulation of gypsum in the soils affect the most of physic-chemical, mineralogical and engineering properties of soils and in the most of cases results in serious problems for human activities. In this research, 9 soil profiles that all mostly located on the gypsiferous parent material in Nooshi Shahr region, were dug, described and sampled and their morphological, physical, chemical and mineralogical properties were determined using standard methods. Finally, soils were classified according to American soil taxonomy (2014). According to the results, gypsum content of soils varied from 62.91% in Cyy horizon of profile 1 to 2.91% in Ap horizon of profile 8 and each change in gypsum content of soils followed by variations in other properties of soils. Results showed that the soils with higher gypsum content had lighter color, lighter texture, lower values of organic Carbone and cation exchange capacity and higher values of electrical conductivity. These parameters reversely changed with decreasing of gypsum content of soils. Mineralogical studies revealed the presence of smectite, illite, chlorite, vermiculite and palygorskite as major clay minerals in these soils. The origin of illite, chlorite and kaolinite were related to the inheritance from parent material and the origin of vermiculite was related to the transformation of illite. Smectite group of clay minerals in these soils have been resulted from three origin of inheritance from parent material, transformation of other minerals (especially from illite) and neoformation. Palygorskite had pedogenic origin and has been formed in the soil via neoformation. The comparison of clay mineralogy of soils with different gypsum values revealed the presence of higher smectites in soils with higher gypsum and palygorskite was identified just in soils with higher gypsum. But, in soils with lower values of gypsum, illite and chlorite were the predominant clay minerals and palygorskite has not been identified in these group of soils. Finally, regarding to the effect of gypsum on morphological, physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of studied soils, in order to optimum use of these soils, revision in their management is necessary

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