بررسی اثر باکتری‌های حل کننده فسفات بر توزیع شکل‌های فسفر در یک خاک آهکی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 شیمی-حاصلخیزی بیوچار ارومیه

2 دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

شناخت توزیع شکل­های مختلف فسفر تحت تأثیر ریزجانداران­ در گستره وسیعی از خاک­ها، برای درک بهتر از ظرفیت آن‌ها در حفظ و تأمین فسفر برای گیاهان ضروری است. برای بررسی نقش باکتری­های حل­کننده فسفات در توزیع شکل­های فسفر خاک، یک نمونه خاک زراعی سطحی (صفر تا 30 سانتی­متر)  با بافت لوم، متعلق به زیر­گروه Typic clacixerpts در استان آذربایجان غربی انتخاب شد. آزمایش به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با دو فاکتور شامل مایه­زنی باکتری در دو سطح (با و بدون سویه­های سودوموناس (Pseudomonas fluorescens) و باسیلوس (Bacillus megaterium)) و زمان نمونه­برداری (صفر، 7، 21 و 45 روز) در شش تکرار اجرا شد. نمونه­های خاک به­مدت 45 روز در انکوباتور در دمای ثابت 28 درجه سلیسیوس قرار داده ­شدند و سپس  شکل­های مختلف فسفر معدنی، فسفر آلی و فسفر قابل­استفاده (Olsen-P) به روش عصاره­گیری دنباله­ای تعیین شدند. مقدار pH خاک 7/7، مقدار رس خاک مورد آزمایش 17درصد و کربنات کلسیم فعال در خاک 3/4 درصد بود. شکل آپاتیت (Ca10-P)، 45 درصد فسفر کل خاک را تشکیل داد و نشان دهنده­ی اهمیّت آن در خاک­های آهکی است. نتایج نشان داد که تیمار­ باکتری باعث تغییرات معنی‌­داری در میزان فسفر قابل ­استفاده، فسفر آلی و فسفر معدنی شدند. فسفر قابل­ استفاده و فسفر آلی و شکل معدنی دی­کلسیم فسفات (Ca2-P) در تیمار باکتری در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد به­ترتیب 66، 15 و 92 درصد افزایش نشان دادند. اما شکل­های اکتاکلسیم فسفات (Ca8-P) و (Ca10-P) در تیمار باکتری به­ترتیب با 13 و پنج درصد کاهش همراه بودند. مقدار شکل­های مختلف فسفر در تیمار باکتری، به­صورت O-P> Ca10-P > Ca8-P > Ca2-P > Al-P شکل آلی بود. هم­چنین شکل آلومینیوم فسفات (Al-P) در تیمار باکتری در مقایسه با شاهد، 10 درصد افزایش نشان داد. در تیمار باکتری همبستگی معنی‌­داری) **84/0= r) بین فسفر (Olsen-P) و Ca2-P)، O-P و (Al-P در خاک وجود داشت. به­طورکلی نتایج نشان داد که تلقیح باکتری­ها سبب افزایش حلّالیت شکل­های قابل استفاده فسفر در خاک شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) on distribution of phosphorus forms in a calcareous soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • Neda Moradi 1
  • MirHassan Rasouli-Sadaghiani 2
1 soil science
2 Dept of Soil Sci. Urmia Uni
چکیده [English]

Recognition of the distribution of various phosphorus forms influenced the activity of microorganisms in soil is essential for better understanding of their capacity to maintain and provide phosphorus for plants.  In this study to investigate the role of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) in the distribution of different forms of soil phosphorus, a surface soil sample (0-30 cm) were selected in West Azarbaijan with a loamy texture, Belongs to the Typic clacixerpts subgroup. An experiment was conducted as a factorial in a completely randomized design with two factors: Microbial treatments (control (no inoculation) and bacterial strains (Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus megaterium) and sampling time (0, 7, 21, 45 days) in six replications. Soil samples were incubated at 28 ° C for a period of 45 days. Then, different forms of inorganic phosphorus, organic phosphorus and Olsen phosphorus were determined by sequential extraction method. Soil pH value 7.7, Clay soil tested 17% and activated calcium carbonate in soil 3.5%. Ca10-P formed was 45% of total phosphorus in the soil and indicates its importance in the calcareous soil. The results showed that the bacterial treatment caused significant changes in the amount of phosphorus, organic phosphorus and mineral phosphorus, the amount of available phosphorus, organic phosphorus and mineral form (di-calcium phosphate (Ca2-P)) in bacterial inoculation compared to control treatment increased 66, 15 and 92%, respectively.  However, the octa-calcium phosphate (Ca8-P) and apatite (Ca10-P) forms in the treatment of bacteria were reduced 13 and 5%, respectively. In addition, the Al -P form was increased 10% compared to control in bacteria treatment. In the treatment of bacterial significant correlation (r=0.84**) between P (Olsen-P) and (Ca2-P, O-P, and Al-P) was present in the soil. The amount of phosphorus in different forms in the treatment of bacteria was as O-P> Ca10-P> Ca8-P> Olsen-P> Ca2-P> Al-P at the end of incubation. The results showed that inoculation of bacterial, increase the solubility of the available phosphorus forms in the soil.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bacillus
  • Pseudomonas
  • available phosphorus
  • sequential extraction
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