تأثیر فاصله ردیف کشت و جهت خاکورزی بر هدررفت آب و خاک در اراضی دیم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه خاکشناسی دانشگاه زنجان

2 گروه خاکشناسی دانشگاه زنجان

چکیده

تعیین فاصله ردیف کشت مناسب برای هر یک از جهت­های کشت برای جلوگیری از هدررفت آب و خاک در کشتزارهای دیم حائز اهمیت است. بنابراین این مطالعه با هدف بررسی اثر هم­زمان جهت­ و فاصله ردیف کشت در کشتزار دیم گندم در منطقه نیمه­خشک انجام گرفت. برای این منظور 12 کرت به ابعاد 5 × 5 مترمربع برای بررسی اثر دو جهت خاکورزی (موازی شیب و روی خطوط تراز) و دو فاصله ردیف (20 و 25 سانتی­متر) در اوایل پاییز 1394 احداث شد. هدررفت آب و خاک پس از باران طبیعی منجر به رواناب طی دوره رشد گندم (از مهر 1394 تا تیر 1395) اندازه­گیری شد. پس از پایان هر رگبار، حجم مخلوط رواناب و رسوب در مخزن انتهای کرت اندازه­گیری و غلظت رسوب تعیین شد. تحلیل داده­ها نشان داد که جهت و فاصله ردیف کشت هر دو اثری معنی­دار بر هدررفت آب و خاک داشتند (001/0>p). هدررفت آب و خاک در کشت روی خطوط تراز به ترتیب 9/5 و 5/3 برابر کم‌تر از کشت موازی شیب و در فاصله ردیف کشت 25 سانتی­متری به ترتیب 47 و 34 درصد کم‌تر از فاصله ردیف کشت 20 سانتی­متری بود. در کشت روی خطوط تراز با فاصله ردیف کشت 25 سانتی‌متری در مقایسه با کشت موازی شیب با فاصله ردیف کشت 20 سانتی‌متری، هدررفت آب و خاک به ترتیب 6/2 برابر و 3/90 درصد کاهش یافت. نقش خاکورزی روی خطوط تراز با فاصله ردیف کشت 25 سانتی­متر در کاهش هدررفت آب و خاک در اوایل دوره کشت (آبان) بیش‌تر از دوره­های دیگر بود. در این دوره پوشش گیاهی کافی روی سطح خاک تشکیل نشده و نقش پشته­های خاک در حفظ آب بیشتر بود. این پژوهش نشان داد که کشت روی خطوط تراز و با فاصله ردیف 25 سانتی­متر راهکاری مؤثر در مهار هدررفت آب و خاک در کشتزارهای دیم است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of row spacing and tillage direction on water and soil losses in rainfed land

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Reza Vaezi 1
  • Majid Bagheri 2
  • Ali Reza Vaezi 2
1 Associate Professor of Soil Science, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan
2 Soil Sci. Dept., University of Zanjab
چکیده [English]

Determination of the row spacing cultivation for each tillage direction is essential to prevent water and soil losses in rainfed lands. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the simultaneous effects of cultivation direction and row spacing on wheat field for preventing soil and water losses in rainfed lands. To this end, twenty plots with dimensions of 5×5 m2 were planted to investigate the effect of two tillage direction (along slope and on contour lines) and two row spacing (20 and 25 cm) early autumn 2015. Soil and water loss were measured after each natural rainfall resulting runoff during the growing period of rainfed wheat (from October 2015 to July 2016). Data analysis showed that both the tillage direction and row spacing significantly affected on soil and water loss (P<0.001). Soil and water loss in tillage on contour line was 5.9 and 3.5 times less than that the tillage along slope, and for the 25-cm row spacing was 47 and 34% less than the 20-cm row, respectively. Soil and water loss in the contour lines tillage with 25-cm row spacing decreased about 2.6 times and 90.3% as compared with the along slope tillage with 20-cm row spacing, respectively. The role of tillage on contour lines and cultivation with 25-cm row spacing was very obvious early cultivation, when sufficient vegetation cover wasn’t formed on the soil surface. Wholly, this study revealed that tillage on contour lines and cultivation with 25-cm row spacing is an effective strategy to control runoff and soil loss in wheat rainfed lands especially early growth period.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Natural rain
  • Wheat growth period
  • Tillage along slope
  • Tillage on contour lines
  • Semi-arid region
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