تنوع گونه‌ای واحدهای زیست‌محیطی در ارتباط با برخی خصوصیات خاک و شکل زمین در اکوسیستم‌های مرتعی کوهستانی (مطالعه موردی: مراتع خانقاه سرخ ارومیه)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد مرتعداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و علوم دریایی نور، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 استادیار گروه مرتعداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و علوم دریایی نور، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

3 استادیار گروه مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی ارومیه، دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

امروزه نیاز به مدیریت پایدار منابع، موجب پیدایش روش­های جدیدی برای طبقه­بندی منابع تحت مدیریت شده است. اهمیت تنوع گونه­ای و مدیریت آن و توجه به شیوه­های نوین تعیین واحدهای مدیریتی­، ایده اولیه این تحقیق را ایجاد کرد. در این تحقیق رابطه بین تنوع گونه­ای مراتع خانقاه سرخ در استان آذربایجان غربی با عوامل محیطی بررسی شد. بدین منظور شش منطقه کلیدی در سه واحد زیست محیطی انتخاب گردید. سپس در هر منطقه، نمونه­برداری از پوشش گیاهی و خاک در طول 6­ ترانسکت 100 متری انجام شد. در طول هر ترانسکت،­10پلات یک متر مربع­ به فاصله­10 متر از هم قرار داده شدند. در هر پلات، نوع گونه­های گیاهی موجود­ و درصد پوشش آنها تعیین شد. همچنین در ابتدا، وسط و انتهای هر ترانسکت با حفر پروفیل، از عمق 15-0 و­30-15­ سانتی­متری نمونه خاک برداشت شد. سپس­21­ عامل اکولوژیکی خاکی و فیزیوگرافی به همراه شاخص­های تنوع گونه­ای شانون-وینر و سیمپسون اندازه­گیری شدند. نتایج تجزیه مؤلفه­های اصلی نشان داد که از بین عوامل محیطی مورد بررسی، بافت، رطوبت اشباع، کربن آلی ذره­ای و کربن موجود در خاکدانه­های درشت، هدایت الکتریکی، وزن مخصوص ظاهری، درصد خاکدانه­های درشت ­و ریز، شیب و ارتفاع بیشترین تاثیر را بر تنوع گونه­ای گیاهی در منطقه دارند. همچنین نتایج حاصل از تجزیه و تحلیل‌های همبستگی نشان داد که درصد شن عمق دوم دارای اثر منفی و سایر عوامل دارای تاثیر مثبت بر تغییرات واحدهای زیست محیطی می­باشند. بر اساس نتایج این تحقیق می­توان بیان کرد که، در ارزیابی­های اکولوژیکی در منطقه مورد مطالعه، عوامل فیزیکی-شیمیای خاک مناسب می­باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Plant Diversity of Bio-environmental Units with Respect to Some Soil and Geopedologic Characteristics in the Mountain Rangeland Ecosystem

نویسندگان [English]

  • Behnam Bahrami 1
  • Reza Erfanzadeh 2
  • Javad Motamedi 3
1 MSc. Student, Department of Rangeland, University of Tarbiat Modares, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Rangeland, University of Tarbiat Modares, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Rangeland, University of Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

Nowadays, the need for sustainable resources management has led to introducing new methods for classification of managed resources. The importance of plant species diversity and its management and considering to the new methods for determining management units encouraged to initiate this research. In this study, the relationship between environmental factors and plant diversity was investigated. Therefore, six key areas were selected within four landscape units. Then, in each area, soil and vegetation sampling were done along 6 100m transects. Along each transect, 10 1×1m plots were established with a distance of 10 m between the two plots. In each plot, plant species were listed and the soil samples were then collected from some of plots located in the beginning, intermediate and the end of transects from two depth i.e. 0-15 and 15-30cm. Twenty-one environmental factors were measured as well as Simpson and Shanon diversity indices. The results of Principle Component Analysis showed that soil texture, saturated humidity, particulate organic matter (carbon), carbon of macroaggregate-associated, EC, bulk density, percentage of maco-and microaggregate and, slope and elevation had the highest impact on plant diversity. In addition, the correlation results showed that sand percentage in deeper layer of soil had negative correlation and other studied factors had positive correlation with bio-environmental variations. According to our results, soil physico-chemical characteristics are enough good for ecological assessments.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Species diversity
  • PCA
  • environmental factors
  • Khanghah rangelands
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