اثر کشت برنج (Oryza sativa L.)، لجن فاضلاب و کودهای شیمیایی بر تغییرات غلظت آهن، روی، مس و منگنز محلول خاک پس از غرقاب

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز

2 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

غلظت عناصر کم‌مصرف محلول خاک بر میزان جذب آنها به‌وسیله گیاه اثر دارد. در این تحقیق، اثر کشت گیاه برنج (Oryza sativa L.) رقم علی کاظمی و مصرف لجن فاضلاب و کودهای شیمیایی بر تغییرات غلظت­ آهن (Fe)، روی (Zn)، مس (Cu) و منگنز (Mn) محلول خاک پس از غرقاب در شرایط گلخانه­ای بررسی گردید. آزمایش به­صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با دو تکرار، شامل مدت غرقاب در 10 سطح (2، 11، 30، 37، 42، 49، 56، 63، 78 و 92 روز)، منبع و مقدار کودهای آلی و شیمیایی در شش سطح (شاهد، 100% کودهای شیمیایی، 20 گرم لجن فاضلاب بر کیلوگرم خاک با و بدون مصرف 50% کودهای شیمیایی، 40 گرم لجن فاضلاب بر کیلوگرم خاک با و بدون مصرف 50% کودهای شیمیایی)، با و بدون کشت برنج انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که غلظت Zn محلول، در هر دو تیمار باکشت و بدون کشت پس از غرقاب به­طور معنی­داری کاهش یافت در حالی که غلظت Fe محلول در تمام تیمارهای بدون کشت (به­ جز 100% کودهای شیمیایی) ابتدا به­طور معنی­داری افزایش و سپس کاهش یافت. غلظت Mn محلول نیز پس از غرقاب در تمام تیمارهای بدون کشت ابتدا افزایش و سپس کاهش یافت. مصرف لجن فاضلاب و کودهای شیمیایی باعث افزایش غلظت Fe، Mn و Zn محلول خاک در تیمارهای باکشت و بدون کشت گردید. در تمامی تیمارها، غلظت Cu محلول خاک ناچیز بود. در اواخر دوره رشد برنج، غلظت­ Fe و Mn محلول خاک در تیمارهای باکشت (رایزوسفر) به­طور معنی­داری بیشتر از تیمارهای بدون کشت (غیررایزوسفر) بود در حالی‌که میان تیمارهای باکشت و بدون کشت از نظر غلظت Zn محلول خاک تفاوت معنی­داری وجود نداشت. به‌طور کلی، کشت گیاه برنج (فرآیندهای رایزوسفر) و مصرف لجن فاضلاب و کودهای شیمیایی می‌توانند غلظت عناصر غذایی کم‌مصرف محلول خاک را تغییر دهند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivation, Sewage Sludge and Chemical Fertilizers on Changes in Iron, Zinc, Copper and Manganese Concentrations in Soil Solution after Submergence

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nosratollah Najafi 1
  • Masoumeh Abbasi 2
1 Associate Professor of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz
2 Former Graduate Student, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz
چکیده [English]

Micronutrients concentrations in soil solution affect nutrient uptake by plant. In this research, the effects of rice (Oryza sativa cv. Ali-Kazemi) cultivation and application of sewage sludge and chemical fertilizers on the changes in iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations in the soil solution after submergence were studied at greenhouse conditions. A factorial experiment based on randomized complete blocks design with two replications including duration of submergence at 10 levels (2, 11, 30, 37, 42, 49, 56, 63, 78, 92 days) and source and amount of organic and chemical fertilizers in six levels (control, 100% chemical fertilizers, 20g sewage sludge per kg of soil with and without 50% chemical fertilizers, 40g sewage sludge per kg of soil with and without 50% chemical fertilizers), with and without rice cultivation was carried out. The results showed that after submergence, Zn concentration of the soil solution decreased significantly in both of the cultivated and uncultivated treatments while Fe concentrations of the soil solution in all uncultivated treatments (except 100% chemical fertilizers) initially increased and then decreased significantly. After submergence, Mn concentrations of soil solution in all uncultivated treatments initially increased and then decreased. Application of sewage sludge and chemical fertilizers increased Fe, Mn and Zn concentrations of the soil solution in the cultivated and uncultivated treatments. In all treatments, Cu concentration in the soil solution was negligible. At the end of growth period, Fe and Mn concentrations of the soil solution in the cultivated treatments (rhizosphere) were significantly greater than the uncultivated treatments (non-rhizosphere), while Zn concentration of the soil solution showed no significant differences between cultivated and uncultivated treatments. In general, the rice plant cultivation (rhizosphere processes) and application of sewage sludge and chemical fertilizers can alter the micronutrients concentrations in the soil solution.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • micronutrient
  • Rice
  • Rhizosphere
  • Submergence
  • Sewage sludge
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