تأثیر دو گونه قارچ میکوریز آربوسکولار در شرایط کمبود عناصر کم مصرف بر pH آبشویه در طول رشد رویشی گیاهان سورگوم و گوجه فرنگی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده مهندسی آب و خاک دانشگاه زابل

2 استاد گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

در اغلب موارد کلنیزاسیون ریشه گیاهان با قارچ­های میکوریز باعث افزایش جذب عناصر کم­مصرف می­شود. برای تشخیص مکانیسم­ جذب عناصر کم­مصرف توسط قارچ­های میکوریز آربوسکولار، اندازه­گیری pH آبشویه میکوریز که معیاری از اسیدی یا قلیایی شدن ریشه­سپهر و هیف­سپهر است، ضروری به­نظر می­رسد. این آزمایش بصورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی و در سه تکرار اجرا شد. فاکتور اول شامل قارچ میکوریز آربوسکولار با گونه­های Glomus etunicatum،  Glomus intraradices و شاهد، فاکتور دوم شامل محلول غذایی راریسون با غلظت­های صفر، نصف و کامل از عناصر کم­مصرف، و فاکتور سوم، زمان سنجش pH آبشویه­ها که شامل 45، 65 و 85 روز پس از کشت بود. گیاهان گوجه­فرنگی(Lycopersicon esculentum Miller) و سورگوم (Sorghum bicolor L.) در پرلیت استریل کشت شده و با قارچ­های گلوموس اتونیکاتوم یا گلوموس اینترارادیسز تلقیح شدند، در حالی که تیمار شاهد فاقد همزیستی میکوریزی بود. از محلول غذایی راریسون با سه سطح صفر، نصف و کامل از عناصر کم­مصرف، در طول رشد رویشی گیاهان استفاده شد. pH آبشویه­ها نیز 45، 65 و 85 روز پس از کشت گیاهان اندازه­گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد که کلنیزاسیون ریشه سورگوم با قارچ­های گلوموس اتونیکاتوم و گلوموس اینترارادیسز به ترتیب 43 و 37 درصد بود. برخلاف گیاهان سورگوم، همزیستی میکوریزی در گیاهان گوجه­فرنگی مشاهده نشد. pH آبشویه­های گیاهان میکوریزی کمتر از غیرمیکوریزی بود. در این زمینه قارچ گلوموس اینترارادیسز کاراتر از گلوموس اتونیکاتوم بود. سطح صفر عناصر کم­مصرف باعث کاهش pH آبشویه شد. 65 روز پس از کشت، آبشویه­ها کمترین مقدار pH را داشتند. در تمامی تیمار­ها pH آبشویه بیشتر از 6/7 بود. به­نظر می­رسد که عامل اصلی این پدیده تغذیه نیتراتی گیاهان است. زیرا نیترات بیشترین منبع ازت در محلول غذایی راریسون را تشکیل می­دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Two Species of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Leachates pH of Sorghum and Tomato in Vegetative Growth Period under Micronutrient Deficient Condition

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ebrahim Shirmohammadi 1
  • Naser Aliasgharzad 2
1 Department of Soil Science, College of Water and Soil Engineering, University of Zabol. Iran.
2 Professors, Department of Soil Science, University of Tabriz. Iran
چکیده [English]

Colonization of roots with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) often improves micronutrients uptake by most of the plants. Measurement of pH in mycorrhizae leachates is an evidence for acidification or alkalinization of rhizosphere and hyphosphere. Leachate pH is very important factor for assessment of micronutrient uptake by AMF. This experiment was laid out in factorial complete randomized block design with three replications. The first factor consists of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with Glomus etunicatum and Glomus intraradices species and control, the second factor was Rorison’s nutrient solution with zero, half and full strength of micronutrients, and the third factor was time of measurement of leachates pH that was include 45, 65 and 85 days after sowing. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) plants were grown in sterile perlite and were inoculated with either Glomus etunicatum or G. intraradices, while the control set was left un-inoculated. Rorison's nutrient solution with three levels of 0, half and full strength of micronutrients was applied to the pots during vegetative growth period. The pH of leachates Measured at 45, 65 and 85 days after sowing (DAS). Results show that, colonization of sorghum roots by G. etunicatum and G. intraradices fungi were 43 and 37%, respectively. On the contrary of sorghum plants, the mycorrhizal symbiosis was not observed in tomato plants. The pH of leachates was lower in mycorrhizal than non-mycorrhizal plants. G. intraradices were efficient than G. etunicatum in this respect. The reduction in leachate pH was induced at 0 levels of the micronutrients. 65 DAS, leachates had minimum amount of pH. In all of treatments, pH of leachates were higher than 7.6. It seems that, the main agent of this phenomenon is nitrate nutrition of plants, because nitrate is the most source of N in Rorison’s nutrient solution.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Glomus etunicatum
  • Glomus intraradices
  • micronutrient
  • leachate pH of plants
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