بررسی اثرات کودهای زیستی باکتری‌های محرک رشد گیاه (PGPR) و کود نیتروژنه بر پارامترهای کمی و کیفی گندم (Triticum aestivum)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب کشور

2 گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد کرج

3 عضو باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان و نخبگان ، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد رشت

چکیده

با توجه به مصرف بی­رویه کودهای شیمیایی نیتروژنه، آلودگی­های ناشی از مصرف این کودها و هزینه تولید بالا، پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی اثرات کودهای زیستی محرک رشد گیاه و کود نیتروژنه بر افزایش عملکرد کیفی و کمی گندم اجرا گردید. آزمایش به­صورت فاکتوریل شامل دو فاکتور: چهار سطح کود زیستی (T0:بدون کود زیستی، T1:کود زیستی حاوی ازتوباکتر کروکوکوم و آزوسپیریلوم برازیلنس با جمعیت 106 سلول از هر باکتری در هر میلی­لیتر مایه تلقیح، T2:کود زیستی حاوی ازتوباکتر کروکوکوم و آزوسپیریلوم برازیلنس با جمعیت 108 سلول از هر باکتری در هر میلی­لیتر مایه تلقیح، T3: کود زیستی حاوی ازتوباکتر کروکوکوم، آزوسپیریلوم برازیلنس، سودوموناس پوتیدا و باسیلوس سابتیلیس با جمعیت 108 سلول از هر باکتری در هر میلی­لیتر مایه تلقیح) و پنج سطح کود نیتروژنه (N0: صفر، N1: 25، N2: 50،N3 : 75 و N4: 100 کیلوگرم بر هکتار نیتروژن خالص) در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام گردید. نتایج نشان داد که در بین اثرات اصلی کودهای زیستی، بیشترین تأثیر را تیمار T3 داشت و به ترتیب 13، 4/20، 8، 7/19 و 8 درصد مقادیر صفات وزن هزاردانه، ارتفاع گیاه، نیتروژن دانه، عملکرد دانه و پروتئین دانه را نسبت به گیاه شاهد افزایش داد. در بین اثرات اصلی کود شیمیایی بر صفات مورد بررسی به ترتیب دو تیمار 100 و 75 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن بهترین تیمارها بوده و تفاوت معنی­داری با هم نشان ندادند (P > 0.05). اثر متقابل تیمار T3 با N3  بالاترین مقادیر را داشت و توانست صفات وزن هزاردانه، ارتفاع گیاه، نیتروژن دانه، عملکرد دانه و پروتئین دانه را به ترتیب 50، 51، 3/57، 3/81 و 5/50 درصد نسبت به گیاه شاهد افزایش دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of PGPR Biofertilizers on the Qualitative and Quantitative Yield Parameters of Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Fallah 1
  • Somayeh Momeni 2
  • Shayan Shariati 3
1 Soil and Water Research Institute, Karaj, Iran
2 Soil Science Department, Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch
3 Young Researchers Club Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch
چکیده [English]

Due to the indiscriminate use of nitrogen fertilizers, pollution caused by the use of fertilizers and high production costs, the present study examined the effects of plant growth promoting biofertilizers and nitrogen fertilizer on increasing the quality and quantity of wheat. The experiment was conducted in two-factor factorial design in three replications; (T0: as control treatment without biofertilizer T1: biofertilizer containing Azotobacter chroococcum and Azospirillum brasilense with population density of 106 cfu ml-1 of inoculum, T2: bio-fertilizer containing Azotobacter chroococcum and Azospirillum brasilense with population density of 108 cfu ml-1 of inoculum, T3: the bio-fertilizer containing Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillum brasilense, Pseudomonas putida and Baillus subtilis with population density of 108 cfu ml-1 of inoculum) and nitrogen fertilizer (N0: Control, N1:25, N2:50, N3:75, N4:100 kg N ha-1) in a completely randomized design. The results showed that the main effect of bio-fertilizer was related to treatment T3 which resulted respectively in 13, 20.4, 8, 19.7 and 8%increase in the 1000-grain weight, plant height, grain nitrogen content, grain yield and grain protein content in comparison to the control. In the case of main effect of chemical fertilizer levels on the mentioned parameters, the treatments 75 and 100 kg N ha-1 were the best treatments and they didn't show a significant difference (P>0.05). Regarding interactions of the treatment T3 with N3 had the highest amount and resulted respectively in 50, 51, 57.3, 81.3 and 50.5% increase in the 1000-grain weight, plant height, grain nitrogen content, grain yield and grain protein content.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Azotobacter
  • Azosprillum
  • Bio-fertilizer
  • Chemical fertilizer
  • Wheat
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