اثر ماده آلی، پتاسیم و کلسیم بر عملکرد، ترکیب شیمیایی و پوسیدگی گلگاه هندوانه در یک خاک سبک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه لرستان (مکاتبه‌کننده)

2 دانشیار دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه لرستان

چکیده

ایران از لحاظ تولید و صادرات هندوانه در مقام دوم دنیا قرار دارد. استان کرمان در جنوب شرقی ایران، از نظر تولید هندوانه دارای رتبه اول در کشور است، ولی در یک دهه اخیر عواملی نظیر خشکسالی، ویژگی­های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک، کیفیت نامطلوب آب آبیاری، عدم مصرف بهینه و متعادل عناصر غذایی موجب کاهش کمی و کیفی و به ویژه افزایش عارضه پوسیدگی گلگاه در این محصول شده است. لذا با توجه به شرایط مذکور، اثر سه عامل ماده آلی، پتاسیم و کلسیم بصورت توأم در یک آزمایش بر عملکرد، ترکیب شیمیایی و عارضه پوسیدگی گلگاه هندوانه مورد بررسی قرار گرفت که مطالعه جدیدی در منطقه محسوب می‌گردد. آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در یکی از شهرستان‌های جنوب شرقی ایران انجام شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل ماده آلی در دو سطح (0 و 20 تن در هکتار کود حیوانی)، کود سولفات پتاسیم در سه سطح (0، 250 و 350 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و محلول‌پاشی کلات کلسیم در دو سطح (0 و 4 گرم کلات کلسیم در لیتر) بود. نتایج بررسی نشان داد که مصرف ماده آلی و تغذیه برگی کلات کلسیم موجب افزایش عملکرد، غلظت کلسیم، آهن و روی گیاه و کاهش عارضه پوسیدگی گلگاه میوه هندوانه شد. همچنین مصرف سولفات پتاسیم موجب افزایش عملکرد شد، اما مصرف این کود بیش از 250 کیلوگرم در هکتار سبب کاهش غلظت کلسیم، روی و آهن در گیاه و افزایش عارضه پوسیدگی گلگاه شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Organic Matter, Potassium and Calcium on Yield, Chemical Composition and Blossom-End Rot of Watermelon in a Sandy Soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • Javad Sarhadi 1
  • Mohamad Feizyan 2
  • Khosro Azizi 2
  • Hamid Reza Matinfar 2
چکیده [English]

Iran stands 2nd in the world in watermelon production and export. Kerman province, in southeast of Iran,  ranks 1st in the country, but in the recent decade, some factors including drought, soil physical and chemical properties, low quality of irrigation water and lack of optimum and balanced nutrient use has resulted in reduction of quantity and quality  as well as blossom end rot (BER) rise in this product. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to assess simultaneous effects of organic matter, potassium and calcium on yield, chemical composition and BER severity of watermelon that is a new study in the region. The experiment was accomplished as factorial in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in one of the southeast towns of Iran. Experimental treatments were comprised of organic matter in two levels (0 and 20 ton ha-1 of farmyard manure), potassium sulfate fertilizer in three levels (0, 250 and 350 kg ha-1) and foliar spray of calcium chelate in two levels (0 and 4 g l-1). The results showed that organic matter application and foliar spray of calcium chelate increased yield, calcium, iron and zinc concentration of plants, whereas the severity of BER was declined. Potassium sulfate application caused yield increase, but the rates more than 250 kg ha-1 resulted in reduction of plant calcium, zinc and iron concentration and higher rate of BER.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • blossom end rot
  • nutrition
  • foliar spray
  • watermelon
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