نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد خاک شناسی. دانشگاه زنجان

2 استاد گروه خاکشناسی دانشگاه زنجان

3 استادیار گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان

چکیده

رواناب از عوامل مهم فرساینده خاک به‌ویژه در اراضی شیب­دار است. این مطالعه به‌منظور بررسی تولید رواناب تحت تأثیر درجه شیب و ویژگی‌های خاک در دامنه‌های بدون پوشش گیاهی در شمال غرب ایران، استان زنجان در سال 1395-1396 انجام گرفت. به این منظور ۹ دامنه با پوشش گیاهی ضعیف و با شیب‌های مختلف شامل: 6، 8، 12، 15، 17، 24، 27، 31 و 36 درصد انتخاب و در هر دامنه سه کرت به ابعاد 1 متر × 5/1 متر در اوایل پاییز 1395 احداث گردید. در مجموع تولید رواناب در 27 کرت در طی دوره یکساله مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. دامنه­های با شیب تندتر، خاک با بافت سبک و سنگریزه­ای داشته و مقدار ماده آلی و آهک کمتری نسبت به شیب­های ملایم داشتند. از 32 رخداد بارندگی طی دوره مطالعاتی، تعداد پنج رخداد منجر به تشکیل رواناب در کرت‌ها شد. روند مثبتی بین مقدار تولید رواناب و شدت بارندگی وجود نداشت. این موضوع نشان دهنده نقش ویژگی­های فیزیکی خاک مانند محتوای رطوبت اولیه در تولید رواناب در کرت­ها است. همچنین بین رخدادهای بارندگی که منجر به تولید رواناب در کرت­ها گردید، تفاوت معنی­داری مشاهده شد. در اراضی با شدت بارندگی کمتر و سرعت نفوذپذیری بیشتر خاک، توان تولید رواناب کمتر بود. تولید رواناب به طور قابل توجهی تحت تأثیر درجه شیب (01/0>p ، 51/0r =)، ماده آلی (01/0>p ، 51/0r =) و آهک (01/0>p ، 51/0r =) قرار  داشت. این مطالعه نقش ویژگی­های خاک و درجه شیب در مقدار تولید رواناب در مراتع را نشان می­دهد. بنابراین حفظ پوشش گیاهی می­تواند باعث افزایش حفظ آب و بهبود محتوای ماده آلی و در نتیجه کاهش تولید رواناب شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Runoff Production under the Influence of Slope and Soil Characteristics in Pastures without Vegetation Cover in Semi-Arid Region

نویسندگان [English]

  • elham Zangaraki Farahani 1
  • Ali Reza Vaezi 2
  • Mohammad Sadegh Askari 3

1 M.Sc. of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Iran

2 Full Professor of Soil Science, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan

چکیده [English]

Runoff is an important factor influencing soil erosion in slope lands. This study was carried out to investigate runoff production as affected by slope gradient and soil properties in pastures without vegetation cover in Zanjan province during 2017-2018. Nine pastures with slope gradients of 6, 8, 12, 15, 17, 24, 27, 31 and 36% were considered and three plots with 1.0 m× 1.5 m in dimensions were installed in each slope on early autumn 2017. Runoff production was measured in twenty seven plots for a one-year period. The steep slopes have coarse soil textures, low organic matter and low lime content as compared to gentle slopes. Out of thirty two rainfalls, five events caused runoff at the plots. There was no positive trend between runoff production and rainfall intensity, indicating the role of soil conditions such as initial water content in controlling runoff at the plots. Significant difference was found among rainfall events in runoff production. Lower runoff production potential in the lands was associated with lower rainfall intensities and higher soil infiltration rate. Runoff production was significantly affected both slope gradient (r= 0.51, p< 0.01), organic matter (r= -0.69, p< 0.01), and lime content (r= -0.59, p< 0.01). This study indicates the role of soil properties and slope gradient in runoff production in the pastures. Therefore, maintaining vegetation cover can increase water retention and improve organic matter content, resulting in a decrease in runoff production.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soil Characteristics
  • Vegetation cover
  • Rainfall intensity
  • organic matter content
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